CICS Transaction Server for z/OS 5.3.0 - Glossary terms



Desenvolvido por DORNELLES Carlos Alberto - Analista de Sistemas - Brasília DF. - cad_cobol@hotmail.com

CICS Transaction Server for z/OS 5.3.0 - Glossary terms

This glossary provides terms and definitions for CICS® Transaction Server.

The following cross-references are used in this glossary:

  • See refers you from a nonpreferred term to the preferred term or from an abbreviation to the spelled-out form.
  • See also refers you to a related or contrasting term.

Numerics

24-bit storage
Virtual storage below the 16 MB address in a z/OS address space.
Addresses below the 16 MB address are accessed by 24-bit addressing, and programs can use this storage when they run in AMODE 24 or higher.

31-bit storage
Virtual storage above the 16 MB address but below the 2 GB address in a z/OS address space.
Addresses above the 16 MB address but below the 2 GB address are accessed by 31-bit addressing, and programs can use this storage when they run in AMODE 31 or higher.

64-bit storage
Virtual storage above the 2 GB address in a z/OS address space.
Addresses above the 2 GB address are accessed by 64-bit addressing, and programs can use this storage when they run in AMODE 64.




abbreviated trace
Optional format for CICS trace entries which summarizes the information in full trace entries.
See also full trace.

absolute time
A time relative to a selected previous time from which the time scale (or measurement of time) begins.
For example, if you want to start a batch job using absolute time and the time scale begins at midnight, specifying an absolute time of 07:00 would mean that the batch job runs at 7 a.m.
If the timescale begins at 9 a.m. with an absolute time of 07:00, the batch job would run at 4 p.m.

access
The ability to read, update, or otherwise use a resource.
Access to protected resources is usually controlled by system software.

access authority
One of a range of possible authority levels that control access to protected resources.
See also authority.

accessibility
An attribute of a software or hardware product that is usable by individuals who have disabilities.

access intent
  1. In IMS, a subsystem's intended use of a database.
    This is in contrast to the sharing level of the database itself, which specifies how the database can be shared.
  2. In RACF, a subsystem's intended use of a protected resource.

access key
In ESA key-controlled storage, a key associated with a storage access request.
When key-controlled protection applies to a storage access, a store operation (write) is permitted only when the storage key matches the access key; a fetch (read) is permitted when the keys match or when the fetch-protection bit of the storage key is zero.
In most cases, the access key for a storage operation is the program status word (PSW) key in the current PSW.

access list
In RACF, the part of a resource profile that specifies the users and groups that can access the resource and the level of access granted to each.
See also conditional access list.

access method
A technique for moving data between main storage and input/output devices.

access method control block
A control block that links an application program to Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) or Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM).

access method services (AMS)
A multifunction utility named IDCAMS that is used to manage catalogs, devices, and both VSAM and non-VSAM data sets.

accessor environment element (ACEE)
A control block that contains a description of the current user's security environment, including user ID, current connect group, user attributes, and group authorities.
An ACEE is constructed during user identification and verification.

access program
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles the main communications with application programs in CICS or IMS systems.

access register (AR)
A register through which one address space accesses the data in another address space or data space.

access register mode (AR mode)
The address space control mode in which the system uses general-purpose registers and the corresponding access register (AR) to resolve an address in an address space or a data space.
See also address space control mode.

ACEE
See accessor environment element.

ACF
See Advanced Communications Function.

ACID property
One of the properties of a transaction: atomicity, consistency, isolation, or durability.
See also atomicity, consistency, isolation.

acquired activity
An activity that a program executing outside the process that contains the activity has gained access to, by issuing an ACQUIRE command.
The activity remains acquired until the next sync point occurs.
Acquiring an activity enables the program to read and write to the data-containers of the activity, read the data-containers of the process that contains the activity and issue various commands, including RUN and LINK, against the activity.
See also acquired process.

acquired process
The process whose root activity a program currently has access to. A program acquires a process in one of two ways: either by defining it; or, if the process already exists, by issuing an ACQUIRE PROCESS command.
The process remains acquired until the next sync point occurs.
Acquiring a process enables the program to read and write to the data-containers of the process and root activity, and issue various commands, including RUN and LINK, against the process.
A program can acquire only one process (root activity) or one descendant activity within the same unit of work.
See also acquired activity.

action definition (ACTNDEF)
In real-time analysis, a definition of the type of external notification that is to be issued when the conditions identified in an analysis definition are true.

activation
The attachment of an activity to perform one of a series of processing steps.
In order to perform all its processing, an activity may need to be activated several times.
In between, it "sleeps".
See also pseudoconversational.

active partition
In BMS, the partition that contains the cursor. It can be scrolled vertically.
While a partition is active, the cursor wraps round at the viewport boundaries, and any input key transmits data from that partition only.

active task
  1. A CICS task that is eligible for dispatching by CICS.
  2. During emergency restart, a task that completed an LUW and started another, but that did not cause any records to be written to the system log during the second LUW.

activity
In BTS, one part of a process managed by CICS business transaction services.
Typically, an activity is part of a business transaction.
A program that implements an activity differs from a traditional CICS application program only in its being designed to respond to BTS events.

activity completion event
An atomic event that fires when an activity completes.

activity identifier
A means of uniquely referring to an instance of a BTS activity.
Activity identifiers are assigned by CICS.

activity keypoint
A record of task and transaction definition status on the system log made on a periodic basis to facilitate the identification of transaction backout information during emergency restart.
In the event of an uncontrolled shutdown and subsequent emergency restart, activity keypoints can shorten the process of backward scanning through the system log.
Activity keypoints are written automatically by the system (system activity keypoints) or by the user (user activity keypoint).

ACTNDEF
See action definition.

addressed direct access
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the retrieval or storage of a data record identified by its relative byte address.

addressed sequential access
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), the retrieval or storage of a data record in its entry sequence relative to the previously retrieved or stored record.

addressing
A method of identification in which the sending or control station selects the station to which it is sending data.

addressing context
An XML document that CICS uses to store WS-Addressing message addressing properties (MAPs) before they are sent in SOAP request messages and after they are received in SOAP request and response messages.

addressing mode (AMODE)
The attribute of a program module that identifies the addressing range in which the program entry point can receive control.

address space
The range of addresses available to a computer program or process.
Address space can refer to physical storage, virtual storage, or both.

address space control mode
The mode, determined by the program status word, that indicates where to find referenced data.
Three types of address space control modes are primary, secondary, and access register.
VTAM macroinstructions must be invoked in primary address space control mode.
See also access register mode.

adopted region
A CICS region that is incorporated into a platform, but that was originally defined outside the platform environment.
See also created region, created region type.

adopted region type
A container for CICS regions that is incorporated into a platform, enabling the regions to be managed as a unit in the platform.
See also created region, created region type.

ADS
See area data set.

ADSP
See automatic data set protection.

Advanced Communications Function (ACF)
A group of IBM licensed programs that use the concepts of Systems Network Architecture (SNA), including distribution of function and resource sharing.

Advanced Program-to-Program Communication (APPC)
An implementation of the SNA LU 6.2 protocol that allows interconnected systems to communicate and share the processing of programs.
See also LU type 6.2.

after-image
A record of the contents of a data element after it has been changed.
After-images are used for forward recovery.

agent
In a two-phase commit sync pointing sequence, a task that receives sync point requests from an initiator.

AGN
See application group name.

AID
  1. See automatic initiate descriptor.
  2. See attention identifier.

AITM
See autoinstall terminal model.

Ajax
A design approach and a set of techniques for delivering rich Internet applications (RIAs) using open web formats, for example, HTML, CSS and JavaScript; and rendering using a browser engine.

allocation
The assigning of various types of programs and record categories to system storage locations, such as main storage or disk storage.

alternate facility
In distributed transaction programming, an IRC or SNA session that is obtained by a transaction by means of an ALLOCATE command.
See also principal facility.

alternate index
  1. A subordinate index in a hierarchy of indexes.
  2. For VSAM key-sequenced data sets and entry-sequenced data sets, an index of alternate keys that provides a path for secondary access to the data set.
    If the records have alternate keys, the alternate index is built when the data set is created.
    See also secondary index.

alternate key
In VSAM, a field, other than the primary key, of fixed length and position in a record.
A set of alternate keys is used to build an alternate index that provides an alternative or secondary path for access to the data set.
There can be any number of alternate keys in a record and they need not be unique.

alternate screen size
An option that permits the size of a display screen to be defined differently from the standard size.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
A private, nonprofit organization whose membership includes private companies, U.S. government agencies, and professional, technical, trade, labor, and consumer organizations.
ANSI coordinates the development of voluntary consensus standards in the U.S.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII)
A standard code used for information exchange among data processing systems, data communication systems, and associated equipment.
ASCII uses a coded character set consisting of 7-bit coded characters.
See also Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

AMODE
See addressing mode.

AMS
See access method services.

analysis definition
In real-time analysis, a definition of the evaluations to be performed on specified CICS resources, the intervals at which those evaluations are to be performed, and the actions to be taken when a notif condition occurs.

analysis group
In real-time analysis, a group of one or more analysis definitions, status definitions, or both.

analysis point monitoring (APM)
In real-time analysis, resource monitoring across multiple CICS system within a CICSplex that results in a single notification of a condition, rather than one notification for each system.

analysis point specification
In real-time analysis, a specification that identifies the CMAS that are to be responsible for analysis point monitoring.

analysis specification
In real-time analysis, a specification that establishes system availability monitoring or MAS resource monitoring within a group of CICS systems.

ANSI
See American National Standards Institute.

AOR
See application-owning region.

AP
See application program.

APAR
See authorized program analysis report.

APF
See authorized program facility.

API
See application programming interface.

APM
See analysis point monitoring.

APPC
See Advanced Program-to-Program Communication.

application
  1. In a CICS cloud environment, a management bundle used to describe and create the CICS bundles that contain the resources and policy that comprise a business application.
    The application can use versioning and is bound to a platform by using an application binding.
    See also application binding, management bundle, platform.
  2. One or more computer programs or software components that provide a function in direct support of a specific business process or processes.
    See also application server.

application binding
In a CICS cloud environment, a management bundle that defines an association that maps, or binds, an application to a target platform.
An application binding can use CICS bundles to provide additional CICS resources and policy for the applications deployed to them.
See also application, CICS bundle, management bundle, platform.

application context
  1. In a CICS cloud environment, data that identifies tasks that are running in the context of the application and platform when a CICS resource is declared as an application entry point for an application.
  2. In event processing, the filtering options defined in the capture specification for application events.
    These options define the environment for the event capture.

application context data
In a CICS cloud environment, metadata that identifies the operation, application, application version, and platform in which the application is running.

application data
In event processing, the predicates in the capture specification used for filtering on application data specified in a CICS command.

application domain
CICS domain that contains several major components, including application and system services, intercommunication (ISC and MRO), system control, and reliability.
Application programs run in this domain.
Most application domain functions are either provided by modules that are an integral part of the CICS system and are loaded at system initialization, or they are system application programs that are loaded as needed, in the same way as user applications.

application event
A type of business event that contains application data.
See also business event.

application group name (AGN)
In DBCTL, the name of an application group. An application group is a set of PSBs that can be accessed by one particular CICS system or BMP as a single entity.

application identifier (APPLID)
The name by which a logical unit is known in a VTAM network.

application-owning region (AOR)
A CICS address space whose primary purpose is to manage application programs.
It receives transaction routed requests from a terminal-owning region (TOR).
See also data-owning region, terminal-owning region.

application partition set
The partition set that CICS loads into the buffers of a display device when a user application program issues an output request.
By default, this is the partition set that was named when the transaction was added to the CICS system.
Alternatively, it is the partition set named by the most recent SEND PARTNSET command that the program issued.

application program (AP)
  1. A program used to communicate with stations in a network, enabling users to perform application-oriented activities.
  2. A complete, self-contained program, such as a text editor or a web browser, that performs a specific task for the user, in contrast to system software, such as the operating system kernel, server processes, and program libraries.

application programming interface (API)
An interface that allows an application program that is written in a high-level language to use specific data or functions of the operating system or another program.

application server
A server program in a distributed network that provides the execution environment for an application program.
See also application.

APPLID
See application identifier.

AR
See access register.

archive
To copy programs, data, or files to another storage media, usually for long-term storage or security.

area data set (ADS)
A data set that contains a data entry database (DEDB) area. IMS can maintain up to seven copies of this data set.

argument
An independent variable or any value of an independent variable.
Examples of arguments are a search key and a number identifying the location of an item in a table.

ARM
See automatic restart manager.

AR mode
See access register mode.

ASCII
See American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

assembler
A computer program that converts assembly language instructions into object code.

assembly language
A symbolic programming language that represents machine instructions of a specific architecture.

assured event emission
A method of emitting events in which the emission occurs synchronously within the unit of work.

asynchronous
Pertaining to events that are not synchronized in time or do not occur in regular or predictable time intervals.
See also synchronous.

asynchronous processing
A series of operations that are done separately from the job in which they were requested; for example, submitting a batch job from an interactive job at a work station.
See also synchronous processing.

ATI
See automatic transaction initiation.

Atom
An XML-based format for syndicated web content and a protocol for editing and publishing web resources that is based on the Atom Specification Format.
See also feed, Really Simple Syndication.

atomic event
A single, "low-level" non-composite event.
The types of atomic event are activity completion, input, timer, and system.
See also composite event.

atomicity
An attribute or property of a transaction whereby a group of statements are run as if a single operation or none of the statements are run.
See also ACID property.

attach
In z/OS, to create a task that can execute concurrently with the attaching code.

attach header
In SNA, a function management header (FMH-5) that causes a remote process or transaction to be attached.

attach request
In SNA, the request unit that flows on a session to initiate a conversation.

attention identifier (AID)
A character in a data stream that is sent to the host system when a display station user presses an attention identifier (AID) key.
Typical AID keys are function keys or the Clear, Enter, Page Up, Page Down, Help, Print, and Home keys.

audit trail
A chronological record of events or transactions. An audit trail is used for examining or reconstructing a sequence of events or transactions, managing security, and recovering lost transactions.

audit trail utility
A CICS utility, DFHATUP, that can be used to print selected BTS audit records from a specified logstream.

authority
The right to access objects, resources, or functions.
See also access authority, class authority.

authorized program analysis report (APAR)
A request for correction of a defect in a supported release of a program supplied by IBM.

authorized program facility (APF)
In a z/OS environment, a facility that permits the identification of programs that are authorized to use restricted functions.

autoinstallation
A method of creating and installing resources dynamically as terminals log on, and deleting them at logoff.
Autoinstall can be used for VTAM terminals, MVS consoles, APPC connections, programs, map sets, partitionsets and journals.

autoinstall control program
A user-replaceable CICS program used to select some of the data needed to automatically install terminals, notably the CICS terminal identifier (TERMID) and the model name to be used in each instance.

autoinstall terminal model (AITM)
A model terminal definition used by CICS during autoinstall of terminals.
Definitions can be user-created or supplied by CICS, and are held in the autoinstall model table (AMT).
The acronym AITM is sometimes loosely used to refer to the CICS routines that manage operations involving the autoinstall model table (AMT).

automatic data set protection (ADSP)
In z/OS, a user attribute that causes all permanent data sets created by the user to be automatically defined to RACF with a discrete RACF profile.

automatic initiate descriptor (AID)
A control block used internally by CICS for scheduling purposes.
An example of AID use is scheduling a transaction, optionally associating it with a terminal and a temporary storage queue.
Another use is scheduling MRO, LU6.1, and LU6.2 ALLOCATE requests.

automatic restart manager (ARM)
A z/OS recovery function that can automatically restart batch jobs and started tasks after they or the system on which they are running end unexpectedly.

automatic transaction initiation (ATI)
The initiation of a CICS transaction by an internally generated request, for example, the issue of an EXEC CICS START command or the reaching of a transient data trigger level.
CICS resource definition can associate a trigger level and a transaction with a transient data destination.
When the number of records written to the destination reaches the trigger level, the specified transaction is automatically initiated.
See also trigger level.

auxiliary storage
All addressable storage other than main storage.

auxiliary trace
An optional CICS function that causes trace entries to be recorded in the auxiliary trace data set, a sequential data set on disk or tape.

auxiliary trace data set
A sequentially organized data set on disk or tape, used to record all trace entries generated while the auxiliary trace function is active.
Either one or two auxiliary trace data sets can be defined; the latter allows the data sets to be switched when the one currently being used is full.

availability
The condition allowing users to access and use their applications and data.

average throughput rate
The power of a system to process a representative work load.
The power of the system is measured in units of data processing work; for example, jobs or transactions successfully completed per hour, minute, or second.

AXM
The "authorized cross-memory" server environment.
A series of modules providing runtime services for CICS-related cross-memory servers which run in MVS authorized state (unlike CICS itself, which runs unauthorized once initialization has completed) such as the temporary storage data sharing server.



B
See byte.

back-end system
A system in a multisystem environment that accepts transactions from the front-end system, calls application programs for transaction processing, and routes replies back to the front-end system for response to the terminal.

back-end transaction
In synchronous transaction-to-transaction communication, a transaction that is started by a front-end transaction.
See also front-end transaction.

backout
See rollback.

backup
The process of making a copy of a data file that can be used if the original file is destroyed.

backward recovery
The process of restoring integrity to databases and other recoverable resources following a failure.

BAS
See Business Application Services.

base cluster
In VSAM, a key-sequenced or entry-sequenced file for which one or more alternate indexes are built.

based addressing
A form of addressing in which a data description is associated with a storage area by a variable address held in a separate pointer area. This is implemented in COBOL by BLL cells and in VS COBOL II by the ADDRESS special register.

base segment
See RACF segment.

base state
The state of a terminal as set by CICS before sending data to it, in the absence of any instructions either from a user application program or from its terminal resource definition. In this state, the terminal behaves as an ordinary (unpartitionable) display device.

basic conversation
In APPC, a conversation between two programs in which the sending program must construct generalized data stream (GDS) records for the receiving program.

basic mapping support (BMS)
An interface between CICS and application programs that formats input and output display data and routes multiple-page output messages without regard for control characters used by various terminals.

basic sequential access method (BSAM)
An access method for storing or retrieving data blocks in a continuous sequence, using either a sequential access or a direct access device.

Basic Telecommunications Access Method (BTAM)
An access method that permits read and write communication with remote devices.

batch container
An entity that, after receiving work, provides lifecycle management, security, deployment, and runtime services to batch applications.

batch data interchange
A program that is used to extend the facilities of CICS terminal control to simplify further the handling of data streams in a network.

batch data stream (BDS)
A Java object that provides an abstraction for the data that is processed by a step in a batch application.

batched repository-update facility
A CICSPlex SM facility that applies multiple updates to a CMAS data repository.

batch message processing program (BMP program)
An IMS batch processing program that has access to online databases and message queues. BMP programs run online, but like programs in a batch environment, they are started with job control language (JCL).

batch processing
A method of processing one or more records (a batch) with little or no action from the user.

batch program
A program that is processed in series with other programs and therefore normally processes data without user interaction.

BDS
See batch data stream.

before-image
A record of the contents of a data element before it is changed. Before images are used to backout incomplete or incorrect changes in the event of a failure.

begin-session handler
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles begin-session processing.

binary digit (bit)
The smallest unit of computer information. A bit has a value of 1 or 0.

bind request
A request to establish a connection between systems or logical units.

bind-time security
See session security.

bit
See binary digit.

bitmap
In temporary storage, a control block used by intrapartition transient data to show the VSAM control intervals (or BSAM tracks) that have been used and are available. It is updated whenever a control interval or track is assigned to or released from a destination.

bits per inch (bpi)
The density, measured in number of bits per inch, at which information can be stored on magnetic tape.

bits per second (bps)
In serial transmission, the instantaneous bit speed with which a device or channel transmits a character.

blocking
The process of combining two or more records into one block.

block-level sharing
A method of sharing data among IMS systems so that multiple application programs can access and update data concurrently between multiple IMS subsystems.
See also database-level sharing.

BMP program
See batch message processing program.

BMS
See basic mapping support.

bottleneck
A place in the system where contention for a resource is affecting performance.

bpi
See bits per inch.

bps
See bits per second.

bracket
In SNA, one or more chains of request units and their responses, representing a complete transaction, exchanged between two session partners.
See also end bracket.

bracket protocol
In SNA, a data flow control protocol in which exchanges between two session partners are achieved through the use of brackets, with one partner designated at session activation as the first speaker and the other as the bidder. The bracket protocol involves bracket initiation and termination rules.

BSAM
See basic sequential access method.

BTAM
See Basic Telecommunications Access Method.

BTS
See business transaction services.

BTS activity
One part of a process managed by CICS BTS. Typically, an activity is part of a business transaction.

BTS-set
The set of CICS regions across which related BTS processes and activities may execute.

buffer
An area of storage that compensates for the different speeds of data flow or timings of events by temporarily holding a block of data that is waiting to be processed or written to an I/O device.

buffer address
In 3270 data stream, the address of a location in the character buffer (screen image).

builder
A module in CICS that, in conjunction with other builders, makes the autoinstall process possible, allows the terminal control table (TCT) to be changed dynamically on a running CICS system, and reduces the times needed for warm and emergency restart on systems that use autoinstall.

bundle
  1. In the OSGi service platform, a Java archive file that contains Java code, resources, and a manifest that describes the bundle and its dependencies.
    The bundle is the unit of deployment for an application. See also enterprise bundle archive.
  2. A collection of CICS resources, artifacts, references, and a manifest file that can be installed as a unit.
    See also CICS bundle, management bundle.

business application
Any set of CICS resources that represent a meaningful entity to an enterprise or a user (such as Payroll).

Business Application Services (BAS)
The component of CICSPlex SM that provides the ability to define and manage business applications in terms of their CICS resources and associated CICS systems. BAS provides a central definition repository for CICS systems, complete with installation facilities and the ability to restrict a CICSPlex SM request to those resources defined as being part of the business application.

business event
  1. An event that occurs during a business process.
    See also application event.
  2. An occurrence of significance to a business. Application events and system events can be business events.

business logic
The part of a distributed application that is concerned with the application logic rather than the user interface of the application.
See also presentation logic.

business service
An abstract representation of a business function, hiding the specifics of the function interfaces.

business transaction
A self-contained business function, for example, the booking of an airline ticket.
A business transaction might be implemented as multiple user transactions or activities.
See also business transaction services.

business transaction services (BTS, CICS BTS)
An application programming interface and set of services for implementing complex business transactions in CICS.
See also business transaction.

byte (B)
A string that represents a character and usually consists of eight binary digits that are treated as a unit. A byte is the smallest unit of storage that can be addressed directly.



CA
See control area.

cache structure
A coupling facility structure that stores data that can be available to all members of a Sysplex. A DB2 data sharing group uses cache structures as group buffer pools.

CALL interface
A part of the external CICS interface (EXCI). The CALL interface consists of six commands that allow you to allocate and open sessions to a CICS system from non-CICS programs running under MVS; issue DPL requests on these sessions from the non-CICS programs; and close and deallocate the sessions on completion of the DPL requests.

capability exchange
A series of messages that pass between two CICS regions to establish if they can communicate using IP interconnectivity (IPIC). The capability exchange determines the security controls that are applied to the connection, the number of sessions to be made available, and resynchronizes any outstanding work if the connection has previously failed.

capacity planning
The process of determining the hardware and software configuration that is required to accommodate the anticipated workload on a system.

capture data
The business information collected by CICS for inclusion in an event.

capture point
A point in application logic or CICS system activity where an event is generated. Capture points are defined in a capture specification.

capture specification
A capture specification provides the information that CICS will use to detect an event within an application or in the system. The capture specification can include the capture point, capture data, and predicates for filtering and is defined in the event binding file.

CART
See command and response token.

cataloged procedure
A set of job control language (JCL) statements that has been placed in a library and that is retrievable by name.

category
The recommended security specifications needed for both the CICS transaction definitions and the corresponding RACF profiles.

category 1 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are never associated with a terminal: that is, they are for CICS internal use only and should not be invoked from a user terminal. For this reason, CICS does not perform any security checks when it initiates transactions in this category for its own use.

category 2 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are either initiated by the terminal user or are associated with a terminal. You should restrict authorization to initiate these transactions to user IDs belonging to specific RACF groups.

category 3 transaction
A set of CICS transactions categorized according to the level of security checking required for them. Transactions in this category are either invoked by the terminal user or associated with a terminal. All CICS users, whether they are signed on or not, require access to transactions in this category. For this reason, they are exempt from any security checks and CICS permits any terminal user to initiate these transactions. Examples of category 3 transactions are CESN and CESF, to sign on and off, respectively.

CCB
See connection control block.

CCSID
See coded character set identifier.

CCTL
See coordinator control subsystem.

CDB
See conversation data block.

CDSA
See CICS dynamic storage area.

CDT
See class descriptor table.

CEB
See conditional end bracket.

central processor complex (CPC)
A physical collection of hardware that consists of main storage, one or more central processors, timers, and channels.

certificate
A digital document that binds a public key to the identity of the certificate owner, thereby enabling the certificate owner to be authenticated. A certificate is issued by a certificate authority and is digitally signed by that authority.

certificate revocation list (CRL)
A list of certificates that have been revoked before their scheduled expiration date. Certificate revocation lists are maintained by the certificate authority and used, during a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) handshake to ensure that the certificates involved have not been revoked.

chain assembly
In CICS intercommunication, a grouping of one or more request units to satisfy a single request. Instead of an input request being satisfied by one RU at a time until the chain is complete, the whole chain is assembled and sent to the CICS application satisfying just one request. This ensures that the integrity of the whole chain is known before it is presented to the application program.

change accumulation
The process of merging log data sets and reducing the information they contain to the minimum required to perform recovery on a particular database or group of databases.

change-direction protocol
In SNA, a data flow control protocol in which the sending logical unit (LU) stops sending normal-flow requests, signals this fact to the receiving LU using the change-direction indicator (in the request header of the last request of the last chain), and prepares to receive requests.

channel
A link along which signals can be sent, such as the channel that handles the transfer of data between processor storage and local peripheral equipment.

checkpoint
A place in a program at which a check is made, or at which a recording of data is made to allow the program to be restarted.

checkpoint algorithm
The algorithm that determines when to commit all global transactions for the job steps in a batch application.
See also results algorithm.

child activity
An activity that is launched during the processing of another activity, which becomes the parent activity.

CI
See control interval.

CICS BTS
See business transaction services.

CICS bundle
A set of XML files that defines or references the resources for a component of an application or a whole application, or another artifact relating to applications, such as a policy.
A CICS bundle is installed in a CICS region. Multiple CICS bundles can be referenced by a management bundle.
See also application binding, bundle, management bundle, platform, stand-alone CICS bundle.

CICS-deployed JAR file
A deployed JAR file that has been produced specifically for the CICS EJB server and stored in the hierarchical file system.

CICS dynamic storage area (CDSA)
A storage area allocated from CICS-key storage below the 16 MB line. The CDSA is used for all non-reentrant CICS-key RMODE(24) programs, all CICS-key task-lifetime storage in 24-bit storage, and CICS control blocks that reside in 24-bit storage.

CICS EJB server
One or more CICS regions that support enterprise beans. A logical CICS EJB server typically consists of multiple (cloned) CICS listener regions and multiple (cloned) CICS AORs. The listener regions and AORs may be combined into listener/AORs.

CICS-key
Storage protection key in which CICS is given control (key 8) when CICS storage protection is used.
This key is for CICS code and control blocks. CICS-key storage can be accessed and modified by CICS.
Application programs in user-key cannot modify CICS-key storage, but they can read it.
CICS-key storage is obtained in MVS key-8 storage. See also user-key storage.

CICS-maintained data table
A type of CICS data table, for which CICS automatically maintains consistency between the table and its source data set. All changes to the data table are reflected in the source data set and all changes to the source data set are reflected in the data table.

CICS monitoring facility
The CICS component responsible for monitoring and producing task-related statistics information, such as task CPU usage and waits for I/O request units on an individual task basis. Reporting is divided into classes.

CICSplex
A set of CICS systems that are managed and manipulated as if they were a single entity.
A CICSplex can be managed by CICSPlex SM.
See also multiregion operation.

CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS)
A CICSPlex SM component that is responsible for managing CICSplexes. A CMAS provides the single-system image for a CICSplex by serving as the interface to other CICSplexes and external programs. There must be at least one CMAS in each MVS image on which you are running CICSPlex SM. A single CMAS can manage CICS systems within one or more CICSplexes.

CICS region
An instance of CICS Transaction Server that runs in its own z/OS address space.

CICS region user ID
The user ID assigned to a CICS region at CICS initialization. It is specified either in the RACF started procedures table when CICS is started as a started task, or on the USER parameter of the JOB statement when CICS is started as a job.

CICS segment
The portion of a RACF profile containing data for CICS.

CICS system
  1. The entire collection of hardware and software required by CICS.
  2. In CICSPlex SM topology, a definition referring to a CICS system that is to be managed by CICSPlex SM.

CICS system definition data set (CSD)
A VSAM KSDS cluster that contains a resource definition record for every record defined to CICS using resource definition online (RDO).

CICS system group
  1. A set of CICS systems within a CICSplex that can be managed as a single entity.
  2. In CICS business transaction services (BTS), a BTS set, that is the set of CICS regions across which BTS processes and activities may execute.
  3. In CICSPlex SM topology, the user-defined name, description, and content information for a CICS system group. A CICS system group can be made up of CICS systems or other CICS system groups.

CICS Transaction Affinities Utility
A utility designed to detect potential causes of inter-transaction affinity and transaction-system affinity for those users planning to use dynamic transaction routing.

CICS-value data area (CVDA)
An argument to which CICS has assigned a specific and limited set of meaningful values. When a CVDA is specified in an EXEC CICS command, CICS converts the CVDA value name to the corresponding numeric representation.

CICS-WebSphere MQ API crossing exit
An exit that intercepts WebSphere MQ calls as they are being run, for monitoring, testing, maintenance, or security purposes.

cipher suite
The combination of authentication, key exchange algorithm, and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) cipher specification used for the secure exchange of data.

CKD
See count-key-data device.

class
  1. In RACF, a collection of defined entities (users, groups, and resources) with similar characteristics.
  2. In object-oriented design or programming, a model or template that can be used to create objects with a common definition and common properties, operations, and behavior. An object is an instance of a class.

class authority (CLAUTH)
An attribute that allows a user to define RACF profiles in a class defined in the class descriptor table.
A user can have class authority to zero or more classes.
See also authority.

class descriptor table (CDT)
A table containing a definition of general resource classes. The CDT contains the classes supplied by IBM and the installation-defined classes.

classification rule
A rule used by the workload manager component of z/OS to assign a service class.

class of service (COS)
A set of characteristics (such as route security, transmission priority, and bandwidth) used to construct a route between session partners. The class of service is derived from a mode name specified by the initiator of a session.

class path
A list of directories and JAR files that contain resource files or Java classes that a program can load dynamically at run time.

CLAUTH
See class authority.

client
A software program or computer that requests services from a server.
See also host, server.

client initialization file
A file containing configuration information used to inform the CICS Client of the CICS servers it can connect to, and the communication protocols to be used.

client program
  1. In the client/server model, the front-end transaction.
  2. In dynamic routing the application program, running in the requesting region, that issues a remote link request.

client/server
Pertaining to the model of interaction in distributed data processing in which a program on one computer sends a request to a program on another computer and awaits a response.
The requesting program is called a client; the answering program is called a server.
See also distributed application.

cloud
A network that delivers requested virtual resources as a service.

cloud enablement
In CICS, packaging a CICS application to use in a CICS cloud environment for deployment in a platform. Resources that comprise a CICS application are packaged into an application bundle to deploy, manage, and monitor the application as a single entity.

cluster
A data set defined to VSAM. A cluster can be a key-sequenced data set, an entry-sequenced data set, or a relative record data set.

CMAS
See CICSPlex SM address space.

CMAS link
A communications link between one CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS) and another CMAS or a remote managed application system (remote MAS). CMAS links are defined when CICSPlex SM is configured.

COBOL
See Common Business Oriented Language.

coded character set identifier (CCSID)
A 16-bit number that includes a specific set of encoding scheme identifiers, character set identifiers, code page identifiers, and other information that uniquely identifies the coded graphic-character representation.

code page
A particular assignment of code points to graphic characters. Within a given code page, a code point can have only one specific meaning. A code page also identifies how undefined code points are handled.

cold start
A method of starting CICS where all local resources are refreshed, but information relating to remote systems and resource managers is preserved.

command and response token (CART)
An 8-byte token that is added to write-to-operator (WTO) commands; it enables the response WTO to be associated with the command that invoked it.

command language translator
A batch program (part of CICS program preparation utilities) that prepares a source application program that includes EXEC CICS or EXEC DLI commands. The translator program translates the EXEC commands into CALL statements in the language of the application program. The translator output can be compiled or assembled in the usual way.

command-level interface
See application programming interface.

command-level interpreter
A transaction that enables CICS commands to be entered, syntax-checked, and executed interactively at a 3270 screen. It provides a reference to the syntax of the whole of the CICS command-level application programming and system programming interface.

command recognition character (CRC)
In MVS, a character that denotes an operator command.

command security
A form of security checking that can be specified for the PERFORM, COLLECT, DISCARD, INQUIRE, and SET commands. Command security operates in addition to any transaction security or resource security specified for a transaction. For example if a terminal invokes a transaction that the user is authorized to use, and the transaction issues a command that the user is not authorized to use, the command fails with the NOTAUTH condition.

command thread
A thread which is reserved by the CICS DB2 attachment facility for commands issued to DB2 using the DSNC transaction.
See also entry thread, pool thread.

COMMAREA
See communication area.

commit
To apply all the changes made during the current unit of recovery (UR) or unit of work (UOW). After the operation is complete, a new UR or UOW can begin.

committed change
A change that is not backed out in the event of a failure. Changes made by a logical unit of work (LUW) are committed when the sync point at the end of the LUW is complete.

Common Base Event
A specification based on XML that defines a mechanism for managing events, such as logging, tracing, management, and business events, in business enterprise applications.

Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL)
A high-level programming language that is used primarily for commercial data processing.

Common Data Model
A logical data model that defines the standard representation of resources and how those resources are associated to each other. The Common Data Model uses influences from various standards bodies in the industry and serves as a best practice conglomeration of all standards.

common error bucket
An additional error status element (ESE) generated for each terminal error block (TEB), if fewer ESEs than the maximum number of error types recognized by the CICS terminal abnormal condition program are specified when the terminal error program (TEP) tables are generated.

Common Programming Interface (CPI)
In Systems Application Architecture (SAA), a set of software interfaces, conventions, languages, and protocols that provide a framework for writing applications with cross-system consistency.

Common Services
A component of CICSPlex SM that provides commonly requested services (such as GETMAIN, FREEMAIN, POST, and WAIT processing) to other CICSPlex SM components.

common system area
  1. In MVS, an area that contains system control programs and control blocks.
  2. A major CICS storage control block that contains areas and data required for the operation of CICS.

Common User Access (CUA)
The Systems Application Architecture (SAA) specification for a user interface.

common work area (CWA)
An area within the CSA that can be used by application programs for user data that needs to be accessed by any task in the system.
See also transaction work area.

communication area (COMMAREA)
A CICS area that is used to pass data between tasks that communicate with a given terminal. The area can also be used to pass data between programs within a task.

communication controller
  1. A device that directs the transmission of data over the data links of a network; its operation may be controlled by a program executed in a processor to which the controller is connected or it may be controlled by a program executed within the device. (T)
  2. A type of communication control unit whose operations are controlled by one or more programs stored and executed in the unit.
    It manages the details of line control and the routing of data through a network.
    See also transmission control unit.

communication section
Part of the task control area (TCA) that is used by CICS and by user-written application programs for communication between the application program and CICS management and service programs.

compatibility mode
A mode of processing in which the IEAIPSxx and IEAICSxx parmlib members determine system resource management.

compiler
A program that translates a source program into an executable program (an object program).

component
A reusable object or program that performs a specific function and works with other components and applications.

component tracing
A facility provided by CICS to track transactions through CICS components and user programs.

composite
  1. A class that is related to one or more classes by a composition relationship.
  2. A Service Component Architecture (SCA) element that contains components, services, references, and wires that connect them.

composite application
An application representing an open architecture in which components of the applications can be developed by IBM or by independent software vendors.

composite event
A "high-level" event, typically formed from the combination of two or more atomic events.
However, composite events can be "empty" - that is, they may contain no sub-events.
See also atomic event, user-defined event.

compute-bound
The property of a transaction whereby the elapsed time for its execution is governed by its computational content rather than by its need to do input/output.

concatenation bit
In distributed transaction processing, high order bit of the first byte of the header of a GDS record.

concurrent
Pertaining to the occurrence of two or more activities within a given interval of time. Concurrent processes can alternately use shared common resources.

conditional access list
In RACF, an access list within a resource profile that associates a condition with a user ID or group ID and the corresponding access authority, allowing otherwise unauthorized access if the specified condition is true.
See also access list.

conditional end bracket (CEB)
An SNA indicator in the request header, FMH5, denoting the end of a conversation between two transactions.

connection
In data communication, an association established between entities for conveying information.

connection control block (CCB)
A control block created by CICS for each IRC session. The CCB contains control information for the inter-region connection and a pointer to the CSB.

consistency
A state of data. A transaction updates the data and checks its state.
If the transaction detects any inconsistency, the change is rolled back and the data is returned to its previous consistent state.
See also ACID property.

consistent
A type of read integrity in which a program is permitted to read only committed data - data that cannot be backed out after it has been passed to the program issuing the read request.
Therefore, a consistent read request can succeed only when the data is free from all locks.
See also read integrity, repeatable.

console
A display station from which an operator can control and observe the system operation.

consolidated software inventory (CSI)
A key-sequenced VSAM data set, used by SMP/E and logically divided into zones.

constraint
A place in the system where contention for a resource is affecting performance.

container
An entity that provides life-cycle management, security, deployment, and runtime services to components. (Sun)

contention loser
On an LU-LU session, the LU that must use an SNA BID command (LUTYPE6.1) or an LUSTATUS command (APPC) to request permission to begin a conversation.

contention mode
In data communication, a mode of transmission in which any station may transmit whenever the line is available, This occurs when a session is between brackets. If stations transmit simultaneously, protocols determine who wins the contention.

contention winner
On an LU-LU session, the LU that is permitted to begin a conversation at any time.

context
A named part of the CICSPlex SM environment that is currently being acted upon by CICSPlex SM.
For configuration tasks, the context is a CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS); for all other tasks, it is a CICSplex.
See also scope.

context data
A set of data values describing the context at the capture point in a running system; for example, the transaction ID, the user ID, and the current program.

context switch
The activation of a process or activity either in a separate unit of work from the requestor or with the transaction attributes specified on the DEFINE PROCESS or DEFINE ACTIVITY command, rather than with those of the requesting transaction. The relationship of the process or activity to the requestor is as between separate transactions, except that data can be passed between the two units of work. A context switch occurs when a process or activity is activated by a RUN command, but not when it is activated by a LINK command.

control area (CA)
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a group of control intervals used as a unit for formatting a data set before adding records to it.
In a key-sequenced data set (KSDS), each CA is pointed to by a sequence-set index record, and used by VSAM for distributing free space and for placing a sequence-set index record adjacent to its data.
See also control block.

control block
In CICS, a storage area used to hold dynamic data during the execution of control programs and application programs.
See also control area, control table.

control flow
Transmission of control indicators over a link when there is no user data available to send. This is often necessary during complex procedures, such as establishing synchronization points.

control interval (CI)
A fixed-length area of direct access storage in which VSAM stores records and creates distributed free space. The control interval is the unit of information that VSAM transmits to or from direct-access storage. A control interval always includes an integral number of physical records.

control subpool
A CICS area that holds the dispatch control area (DCA), interval control elements (ICEs), automatic initiate descriptors (AIDs), queue element areas (QEAs), and other control information. Generally, the control subpool occupies only one page.

control table
In CICS, a storage area used to define or describe the configuration or operation of the system.
See also control block.

conversational
  1. Pertaining to a program or a system that conducts a dialog with a terminal user, alternately receiving and transmitting data.
  2. Pertaining to an SNA conversation or a dialog between two programs.

conversation characteristic
In distributed transaction processing, one of the attributes of a conversation that determine the functions and capabilities of programs within the conversation.

conversation correlator
In LU6.2 distributed transaction processing, a field passed in the attach header when the conversation is initiated.

conversation data block (CDB)
An area used by a program to obtain information about the outcome of a DTP command on an APPC basic (GDS) conversation.

cooperative processing
Distributed processing in which processors, typically a programmable workstation and a host computer, accomplish the work of an application by means of coordinated or synchronized use of processing functions and system resources.

coordinator
In a multi-MVS configuration, a region that receives requests from master regions to initiate a takeover.
It then instructs all the alternate regions to take over.
See also master, subordinate.

coordinator control subsystem (CCTL)
In IMS, the transaction management subsystem that communicates with the DRA, which in turn communicates with DBCTL. In a CICS-DBCTL environment, the CCTL is CICS. The term is used in a number of IMS operator commands that apply to DBCTL, and in the IMS manuals.

COS
See class of service.

count-key-data device (CKD)
A disk storage device for storing data in the format: count field normally followed by a key field followed by the actual data of a record. The count field contains, in addition to other information, the address of the record in the format: CCHHR (where CC is the two-digit cylinder number, HH is the two-digit head number, and R is the record number) and the length of the data. The key field contains the record's key (search argument).

CPC
See central processor complex.

CPI
See Common Programming Interface.

CRC
See command recognition character.

created region
A CICS region that is defined in the platform environment specifically for use in a platform.
See also adopted region, adopted region type, created region type.

created region type
A container for CICS regions that are defined for use in a platform, enabling the regions to be managed as a unit in the platform.
See also adopted region, adopted region type, created region.

CRL
See certificate revocation list.

cross-system coupling facility (XCF)
A component of z/OS that provides functions to support cooperation between authorized programs running within a sysplex.

CSA
See common system area.

CSD
See CICS system definition data set.

CSI
See consolidated software inventory.

CUA
See Common User Access.

cumulative mapping
A form of BMS output mapping in which data stream generation is delayed until a SEND PAGE command is received or a page overflow occurs.

current connect group
In RACF, during a terminal session or batch job, the group with which a user is associated for access checking purposes.
On MVS, if a user does not specify the current connect group on the LOGON command or batch JOB statement, the current connect group is the user's default group.
On CICS, users cannot specify a group other than their default group.
If list-of-groups processing is in effect, users are associated with all the groups to which they are connected.
See also default group.

current list
A list name, specified with a resource definition online command, that is "remembered" until another list name is used.

cutover
The point of change from a development CICS system to a production CICS system, or between different releases of CICS.

CVDA
See CICS-value data area.

CWA
See common work area.



daisy chain
In CICS intercommunication, the chain of sessions that results when a system requests a resource in a remote system, but the remote system discovers that the resource is in a third system and has itself to make a remote request.

DASD sharing
An option that lets independent computer systems use common data on shared disk devices.

data aggregate
A logical collection of data elements that can be referred to either collectively or individually.

database (DB)
A collection of interrelated or independent data items that are stored together to serve one or more applications.

Database Control (DBCTL)
An environment that allows full-function databases and data entry databases (DEDBs) to be accessed from one or more transaction management subsystems.

database description (DBD)
The collection of macro parameter statements that define the characteristics of a database, such as the database's organization and access method, the segments and fields in a database record, and the relationship between types of segments.

database integrity
The protection of data items in a database while they are available to any application program. This protection includes the isolation of effects of concurrent updates to a database by two or more application programs.

database-level sharing
A kind of data sharing that enables application programs in one IMS to read data while another program in another IMS reads from the same database or updates it. See also block-level sharing.

database program communication block (DB PCB)
The PCB that describes an application program's interface to a database. One DB PCB is required for each database view that is used by the application program.

database record
In an IMS database, a collection of segments that contains one occurrence of the root segment type and all of its dependents arranged in a hierarchic sequence. A database record can be a physical database record or a logical database record.

database recovery
The process of restoring data by merging the backup copy with changes accumulated since the backup was made.

Database Recovery Control (DBRC)
A feature of the IMS Database Manager that facilitates easier recovery of IMS databases. DBRC maintains information that is required for database recoveries, generates recovery control statements, verifies recovery input, maintains a separate change log for database data sets, and supports sharing of IMS databases and areas by multiple IMS subsystems.

database reorganization
The process of unloading and reloading a database to optimize physical segment adjacency or to modify the database description (DBD).

database resource adapter (DRA)
Component of the CICS-DBCTL interface in the CICS address space. Its functions include requesting connection and disconnection from DBCTL, telling CICS when a shutdown of DBCTL has been requested or if DBCTL has failed, managing threads, establishing contact with the DBCTL address space, and loading the DRA startup parameter table.

Data Cache Manager
A component of CICSPlex SM that manages logical cache storage for use by other CICSPlex SM components.

data container
A named area of storage, maintained by BTS, and used to pass data between activities, or between different invocations of the same activity. Each data container is associated with an activity; it is identified by its name and by the activity for which it is a container. An activity can have any number of containers, as long as they all have different names.

data control block (DCB)
A control block used by access method routines in storing and retrieving data.

data definition name (ddname)
The name of a data definition (DD) statement that corresponds to a data control block that contains the same name.

data element
  1. A unit of data that cannot be divided. An example is the data element "age of a person" with values consisting of all 3-decimal digit combinations.
  2. The smallest unit of data that can be referred to.

data entry database (DEDB)
A direct-access database that consists of one or more areas, with each area containing both root segments and dependent segments. DEDBs use a data structure that allows them to be used for both hierarchic processing and journaling. The database is accessed by using the VSAM Media Manager.

data independence
The concept of separating the definitions of logical and physical data such that application programs do not depend on where or how physical units of data are stored; the reduction of application program modification in data storage structure and access strategy.

data interchange block (DIB)
A block created by the CICS data interchange program (DIP) to control input and output to SNA batch devices. The DIB is chained to the appropriate TCTTE for the batch device, and is released at the termination of the transaction.

data interchange program (DIP)
A CICS program that communicates with batch data interchange terminals, such as the 3790, for bulk transfer of dumps, data sets, and so on.

Data Language/I (DL/I)
The IMS data manipulation language, which is a common high-level interface between a user application and IMS. DL/I calls are invoked from application programs that are written in languages such as Java, PL/I, COBOL, VS Pascal, C, and Ada. DL/I can also be invoked from assembler language application programs by subroutine calls. IMS lets the user define data structures, relate structures to the application, load structures, and reorganize structures.

data link protocol
In SNA, a set of rules for data communication over a data link in terms of a transmission code, a transmission mode, and control and recovery procedures.

data management block (DMB)
An IMS control block in main storage that describes and controls a physical database. A DMB is constructed from information that is obtained from the ACB library or the DBD library.

data-owning region (DOR)
A CICS address space whose primary purpose is to manage files and databases.
See also application-owning region, terminal-owning region.

data security
The protection of data against unauthorized disclosure, transfer, modification, or destruction, whether accidental or intentional.

data set
The major unit of data storage and retrieval, consisting of a collection of data in one of several prescribed arrangements and described by control information to which the system has access.

data set name block (DSNAME block, DSNB)
An area that represents a physical VSAM data set that is being accessed through one or more CICS files.

data set name sharing
An MVS option that allows one set of control blocks to be used for the base and the path in a VSAM alternate index.

data set profile
A profile that provides RACF protection for one or more data sets.
The information in the profile can include data such as the profile owner, universal access authority, and access list.
See also discrete profile, generic profile, profile.

data space
A separate area of addressable storage that contains only data. A data space can hold up to 2 gigabytes of data.

data stream
The commands, control codes, data, or structured fields that are transmitted between an application program and a device such as printer or nonprogrammable display station.

data table
A file whose records are held in main storage.

DB
See database.

DB2
A family of IBM licensed programs for relational database management.

DBCS
See double-byte character set.

DBCTL
See Database Control.

DBD
See database description.

DB PCB
See database program communication block.

DBRC
See Database Recovery Control.

DCB
See data control block.

ddname
See data definition name.

deadlock
Unresolved contention for the use of resources.

deblock
To remove each logical record from a block.

DEDB
See data entry database.

default group
In RACF, the group specified in a user profile that is the default current connect group.
See also current connect group.

default user
The user whose security attributes are used to protect CICS resources in the absence of other, more specific, user identification. For example, except in the case of terminals defined with preset security, the security attributes of the default user are assigned to terminal users who do not sign on.

deferred work element (DWE)
A work element created and placed on a chain (the DWE chain) to save information about an event that must be completed before task termination but that is not completed at the present time. DWEs are also used to save information about work to be backed out in case of an abend.

defined user ID
See defined user identifier.

defined user identifier (defined user ID)
A user identifier (user ID) named on a DEFINE PROCESS or DEFINE ACTIVITY command. It specifies the user ID under whose authority the process or activity will be run, if it is activated by a RUN command.

definite response (DR)
In SNA, a value in the response-requested field of the request header that directs the receiver of the request to return a response unconditionally, whether positive or negative, to that request.
See also exception response, no response.

definition signature
In a CICS resource, information about when, how, and by whom the resource was defined or last changed.
See also resource signature.

delegation
The act of giving other users or groups the authority to perform operations.

delete lock
Lock acquired by CICS file control whenever a DELETE, WRITE, or WRITE MASSINSERT operation is being performed for a recoverable VSAM KSDS or a recoverable path over a KSDS.

dependent region
In a multi-MVS configuration, a region that receives commands from a master or coordinator region at takeover time. It cannot initiate a takeover.

descriptor
An XML file that describes the content of a component or resource.

destination
A queue of data used with the CICS transient data facility.

device dependence
The reliance on the characteristics of particular types of devices used in writing and running programs or in performing functions.
See also device independence.

device independence
The capability to write and run programs or perform functions without regard for the physical characteristics of devices.
See also device dependence.

DFH
Three-character prefix of all CICS modules.

DFHDUP
See dump utility program.

DFHDYP
See dynamic transaction routing program.

DFHMDF
See field definition macro.

DFHMDI
See map definition macro.

DFHMSD
See map set definition macro.

DFHOSTAT
See sample statistics program.

DFHSIP SIP
See system initialization program.

DFHSTUP STUP
See statistics utility program.

DIB
  1. See DL/I interface block.
  2. See data interchange block.

dictionary data section
One of the data sections of a CICS monitoring record written to SMF. The dictionary data section defines all the performance data that is being gathered or can be gathered during this CICS run.

DIP
See data interchange program.

direct access
A file access method allowing reading and writing of records in an arbitrary order.

direct access method
An access method used to retrieve or update particular blocks of a data set on a direct access device.

directory manager domain
A CICS domain that provides resource-table lookup services for CICS Transaction Server for z/OS components such as transaction manager, program manager, and user domains. The resource definitions for which the directory manager domain provides services are transaction definitions, remote transaction definitions, transaction classes, TPNames, user attributes, programs, BMS mapsets, and BMS partition sets.

discovery
The process of finding resources within an enterprise, including finding the new location of monitored resources that were moved. See also schedule.

discovery library adapter (DLA)
A program that copies data from a management software system, converts it to IDML, and stores it in books in the discovery library.

discovery library book
An XML document that stores discovery information and their relationships. The discovery library book can be later consumed by other discovery library aware systems.

discrete profile
A Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) profile that contains security information about a single data set, user, or resource.
See also data set profile, generic profile, profile, resource profile.

dispatch
  1. To allocate processing time on a specific device for a job that is ready to run.
  2. In CICS, to schedule a task for execution.
    Dispatching is done by CICS task control.
    See also service request block.

dispatcher domain
Major component of CICS concerned with attaching, running, and detaching tasks and scheduling task control blocks for the various modes: quasi reentrant, resource-owning, or concurrent.

dispatching priority
A number assigned to tasks, used to determine the order in which they are to use the processor in the CICS multitasking environment.

distributed application
An application made up of distinct components that are located on different computer systems, connected by a network.
See also client/server.

distributed data
Data that is stored on more than one system and is available to remote users and application programs.

distributed identity
User identity information that originates from a remote system. The distributed identity is created in one system and is passed to one or more other systems over a network.

distributed processing
Processing in which resources or functions are dispersed among two or more interconnected processors, typically over a network.

distributed program link (DPL)
A function of CICS intersystem communication that enables an application program to ship LINK requests to another application program on a different instance of CICS.

distributed routing model
A "peer-to-peer" dynamic routing system, in which each of the participating CICS regions can be both a routing region and a target region. The distributed routing model is implemented by the distributed routing program.

distributed routing program
A user-replaceable program that can be used to dynamically route BTS processes and activities, and transactions started by non-terminal-related EXEC CICS START commands.

distributed transaction processing (DTP)
A process that enables a CICS transaction to communicate synchronously with a transaction running in another instance of CICS.

distributed unit of work (DUW)
In a distributed process, all processing between two sync points taken by two or more intercommunicating transactions using a two-phase commit protocol. A DUW is a distributed LUW.

distribution zone
In SMP/E, a group of VSAM records that describe the structure and contents (that is, the system modifications and elements) of a set of distribution libraries.

DLA
See discovery library adapter.

DL/I
See Data Language/I.

DL/I interface block (DIB)
A block containing variables automatically defined in an application program using HLPI to receive information passed to the program by DL/I during execution. A block automatically inserted into a program by the DLI command translator. Whenever a program issues an EXEC DLI request, DLI responds by storing information in the DIB.

DLISAS
See DLI separate address space.

DLI separate address space (DLISAS)
A component of DBCTL that resides in the IMS address space. It is a separate address space that contains DL/I code, control blocks, buffers for DL/I databases and program isolation.

DMB
See data management block.

DNS
See Domain Name System.

document
A logical structure that a CICS transaction can use to manipulate text or other structured information.
See also document template.

document template
A unit of information that is used to construct a document.
A document template can contain fixed text, and symbols that represent text whose value is supplied by an application program.
See also document.

domain
A functionally isolated area of the CICS system that owns resources to which it has sole access and that communicates with other parts of CICS through strictly defined interfaces called gates.

domain gate
An entry point or interface to a CICS domain. A domain gate can be called by any authorized caller who needs to use some function provided by the domain.

domain manager domain
Major component of CICS responsible for maintaining, through the use of catalog services, permanent information about individual domains.

Domain Name System (DNS)
The distributed database system that maps domain names to IP addresses.

DOR
See data-owning region.

double-byte character set (DBCS)
A set of characters in which each character is represented by 2 bytes.
These character sets are commonly used by national languages, such as Japanese and Chinese, that have more symbols than can be represented by a single byte.
See also single-byte character set.

doubleword
A contiguous sequence of bits or characters that comprises two computer words and is capable of being addressed as a unit.
See also word.

DPL
See distributed program link.

DR
See definite response.

DRA
See database resource adapter.

DRA startup parameter table
Provides the parameters needed to define a DBCTL subsystem.

DSA
See dynamic storage area.

DSNAME block
See data set name block.

DSNB
See data set name block.

DTP
See distributed transaction processing.

dual-purpose definition
For transaction routing or function shipping, a means of sharing file, terminal, or transaction definitions between systems.

dump
A representation of the contents of selected areas of main storage used to find out whether a program is functioning as intended and to analyze problems.
Dumps may be recorded by CICS either as a consequence of failure detected during CICS execution, or upon explicit request.
See also partition dump.

dump code
In CICS Transaction Server, a predefined name by which a dump is known.
There are two types of dump code, transaction dump codes and system dump codes.
See also system dump code, system dump table, transaction dump code, transaction dump table.

dump data set
A sequential data set (optional) used to record dumps of transactions (tasks) within the system. It can be formatted and printed by the CICS dump utility program (DFHDUP). If required, the user can define two dump data sets (DFHDMPA and DFHDMPB), switching between them during online execution of CICS.

dump domain
Major component of CICS responsible for producing storage dumps and for handling the associated data sets and dump tables.

dump table
A table of dump codes to enable a user to vary the system actions taken when a dump is produced for a particular dump code.

dump utility program (DFHDUP)
An offline utility program that formats and prints the output from formatted dump, and prints transaction dumps. It operates in batch mode and, for formatted dumps, identifies each storage area, program, and table entry, and prints them separately, with actual and relative addresses.

DUW
See distributed unit of work.

DWE
See deferred work element.

dynamic allocation
Assignment of system resources to a program when the program is executed rather than when it is loaded into main storage.

dynamic backout
A process that automatically cancels all activities performed by an application program that terminates abnormally.

dynamic parse
A method of parsing TSO commands according to syntax given in an external file.

dynamic partition
A partition configured at the time of program execution according to the storage requirements of the application program or program to which the partition is allocated.

dynamic routing
The automatic routing of a service request, a message, or an event that is based on conditions at the time of the routing.

dynamic routing program
A user-replaceable CICS program that selects dynamically both the system to which a routing request is to be sent and the transaction's remote name. The alternative to using this program is to make these selections when a remote transaction is defined to CICS (static routing).

dynamic storage
An area of storage that is explicitly allocated by a program or procedure while it is running.
See also static storage.

dynamic storage area (DSA)
A type of storage allocation in which storage is assigned to a program or application at run time.

dynamic transaction routing program (DFHDYP)
A user-replaceable CICS program that selects dynamically both the system to which a transaction routing request is to be sent and the transaction's remote name. The alternative to using this program is to make these selections when a remote transaction is defined to CICS (static transaction routing).



EBA
See enterprise bundle archive.

EBCDIC
See Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code.

ECB
See event control block.

ECDSA
See extended CICS dynamic storage area.

ECI
See external call interface.

ECKD device
See extended count key data device.

ECSA
See extended common service area.

EDF
See execution diagnostic facility.

EEQE
See extended error queue element.

EIB
See EXEC interface block.

EJB
See Enterprise JavaBeans.

EJB JAR file
A Java archive that contains an EJB module. (Sun)

ELPA
See extended link pack area.

emit
To send a formatted event to a consumer from an event processing adapter.

emitted business information
As used in a CICS event specification, the collection of information to be emitted for the event, defined in business terms.

EMP
See event monitoring point.

empty range
The part of a VSAM file that is available for insertion of new records.

emulation program
A program that allows a host system to communicate with a workstation in the same way as it would with the emulated terminal.
See also Network Control Program.

encumbrance
An activity or event that can impact query performance on a system.

end bracket
In SNA, the value (binary 1) of the end bracket indicator in the request header (RH) of the first request of the last chain of a bracket; the value denotes the end of the bracket.
See also bracket.

end-of-chain (EOC)
In SNA, an exception condition that occurs when the end-of-chain indicator is set in the request/response unit (RU) returned from VTAM.

end-of-day statistics
In CICS Transaction Server, CICS statistics written to an SMF data set at the quiesce or termination of a CICS run, or at a user-specified time.
See also interval statistics, unsolicited statistics.

end-of-file (EOF)
On a data medium, a coded character indicating the end of the medium.

endpoint reference (EPR)
An XML structure containing addressing information that is used to route a message to a web service. The addressing information includes the destination address of the message, optional reference parameters for use by the application, and optional metadata.

end session handler
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles end of conversation and end of session processing.

enterprise bean
A component that implements a business task or business entity and resides in an EJB container. Entity beans, session beans, and message-driven beans are all enterprise beans. (Sun)

enterprise bundle archive (EBA)
A compressed file, with a .eba extension, that contains or refers to one or more OSGi bundles that are deployed as one OSGi application.
See also bundle.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)
A component architecture defined by Sun Microsystems for the development and deployment of object-oriented, distributed, enterprise-level applications (Java EE).

entity
A user, group, or resource that is defined to a security service, such as RACF.

entity bean
In EJB programming, an enterprise bean that represents persistent data maintained in a database. Each entity bean carries its own identity.
(Sun) See also session bean.

entry-sequenced data set (ESDS)
A VSAM data set whose records are physically in the same order in which they were put in the data set. A VSAM data set is processed by using addressed direct access or addressed sequential access and has no index. New records are added at the end of the data set.

entry thread
A thread which is used by the CICS DB2 attachment facility for transactions with special requirements, such as high priority transactions, or transactions with special accounting needs.
See also command thread, pool thread.

Environment Services System Services (ESSS)
A component of CICSPlex SM that implements the formal MVS subsystem functions required by the product. ESSS provides cross-memory services, data space management, connection services, and lock management. An ESSS system address space is created at CICSPlex SM initialization and remains in the MVS image for the life of the IPL.

EOC
See end-of-chain.

EOF
See end-of-file.

EP adapter
See event processing adapter.

EP adapter configuration
An XML definition that defines one EP adapter to CICS, and can be deployed to CICS in a CICS bundle.

EPI
See external presentation interface.

EPR
See endpoint reference.

ER
See exception response.

erase-on-scratch
A Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) and DFSMSdfp function that overwrites the space occupied by a data set when the data set is deleted (scratched) from a direct access storage device (DASD) or part of the space is released.

ERDSA
See extended read-only dynamic storage area.

ESDS
See entry-sequenced data set.

ESDSA
See extended shared dynamic storage area.

ESM
See external security manager.

ESQA
See extended system queue area.

ESSS
See Environment Services System Services.

EUDSA
See extended user dynamic storage area.

event
An occurrence of significance to a task or system. Events can include completion or failure of an operation, a user action, or the change in state of a process.

event binding
An XML definition that can be deployed to CICS in a CICS bundle. This bundle can be enabled, disabled, installed, inquired on, and uninstalled. The event binding contains event specifications, capture specifications, and adapter information.

event capture
The process of capturing an event in CICS. After a capture point has been successfully filtered, CICS copies all of the capture data and passes it to the event dispatcher.

event control block (ECB)
A control block used to represent the status of an event.

event dispatcher
A dispatcher that routes captured events to the correct event processing adapter for processing.

event monitoring point (EMP)
Point in the CICS code at which CICS monitoring data is collected.

event option
A predicate in the capture specification used for filtering on the value of one of the options on a CICS command for application events or on one of the predefined options for system events.

event pool
The set of events recognized by an activity (system events and user events that have been defined to it). Each activity has an event pool associated with it. An activity's event pool is initialized when the activity is created, and deleted when the activity is deleted. Event-related commands such as DEFINE INPUT EVENT and DEFINE COMPOSITE EVENT operate on the event pool associated with the current activity.

event processing adapter (EP adapter)
A program that formats and routes events emitted by CICS.

event processing adapter configuration
An XML definition that defines an event processing adapter to CICS. An event processing adapter consists of adapter and dispatcher information.

event processing adapter set
A definition that contains the names of one or more EP adapters.

event specification
Part of the event binding that represents a business event. The event specification contains the event name and the emitted business information. One or more capture specifications can refer to an event specification.

exception
A condition or event that cannot be handled by a normal process.

exception class data
CICS monitoring information on exception conditions raised by a transaction, such as queuing for VSAM strings or waiting for temporary storage.
This data highlights possible problems in system operations.
See also monitoring record.

exception response (ER)
In SNA, a value in the form-of-response-requested field of the request header that directs the receiver of the request to return a response only if the request is unacceptable as received or if the request cannot be processed; that is, only a negative response can be returned.
See also definite response, no response.

exception trace entry
An entry made to the internal trace table and any other active trace destinations when CICS detects an exception condition. It gives information about what was happening at the time the failure occurred and what was being used.

exchange log name
The process by which, when an APPC connection is established between two CICS systems (or reestablished after failure), the name of the system log currently in use on each system is passed to the partner.
The exchange log name process affects only sync level 2 conversations.
It is used to detect the situation where a failed CICS has been communicating with a partner that is waiting to perform session recovery, and is restarted using a different system log.
See also logname.

EXCI
See external CICS interface.

exclusive control
A type of access control in which VSAM keeps control of the control interval (CI) containing a specific record until a REWRITE, UNLOCK, or DELETE command is issued for that record. The purpose of exclusive control is to protect against simultaneous update.

exclusive intent
In IMS, the scheduling intent type that prevents an application program from being scheduled concurrently with another application program.

exclusive use
A means by which CICS and data managers, such as SQL/DS, combine to prevent concurrent updates of resources. A transaction updating a recoverable resource gets control of that resource until it terminates or indicates that it wants to commit those changes with a syncpoint command. Other transactions requesting the same resource must wait until the first transaction has finished with it.

EXEC interface
See application programming interface.

EXEC interface block (EIB)
A control block associated with each task in a CICS command-level environment. The EIB contains information that is useful during the execution of an application program (such as the transaction identifiers) and information that is helpful when a dump is being used to debug a program.

EXEC interface stub
The stub link-edited with every command-level program. It is part of the CALL interface between EXEC CICS commands and the CICS EXEC interface program (EIP).

execution diagnostic facility (EDF)
A CICS facility used for testing application programs interactively online, without making any modifications to the source program or to the program preparation procedure. The facility intercepts execution of the program at various points and displays information about the program at these points. Also displayed are any screens sent by the user program, so that the programmer can converse with the application program during testing just as a user would do on the production system.

exit point
A specific point in a system function or program where control may be passed to one or more specified exit programs.
See also exit program.

exit program
A program to which control is passed from an exit point.
See also exit point.

exit programming interface (XPI)
Provides global user exit programs with access to some CICS services. It consists of a set of function calls that can be used in user exit programs to extend CICS functions.

expiration time
The time at which a time-controlled CICS function is to be started.

extended addressing
The use of 31-bit addresses (above the 16 MB line).
See also extended link pack area.

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC)
A coded character set of 256 8-bit characters developed for the representation of textual data.
See also American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

extended CICS dynamic storage area (ECDSA)
Storage area allocated above 16 MB but below 2 GB for CICS code and control blocks that are eligible to reside above 16 MB but below 2 GB, but that are not eligible for the ERDSA (that is, they are not reentrant).

extended common service area (ECSA)
A major element of z/OS virtual storage above the 16 MB line. This area contains pageable system data areas that are addressable by all active virtual storage address spaces. It duplicates the common system area (CSA) which exists below the 16 MB line.

extended count key data device (ECKD device)
A disk storage device that has a data transfer rate faster than some processors can utilize and that is connected to the processor through use of a speed matching buffer.
A specialized channel program is needed to communicate with such a device.
See also fixed-block architecture disk device.

extended error queue element (EEQE)
Data that describes an I/O error on a local DL/I database. EEQEs are recorded by CICS in the global catalog. CICS uses EEQEs to provide I/O error handling during CICS restarts, including cold starts.

Extended Identity Context Reference (ICRX)
A control block in RACF that contains information about the distinguished name and realm of a user, which are used for identity propagation.

extended link pack area (ELPA)
The portion of virtual storage above 16 MB that contains frequently used modules.
See also extended addressing.

extended private area
An element of MVS virtual storage above the 16 MB line. This area duplicates the private area except for the 16 KB system region area.

extended read-only dynamic storage area (ERDSA)
An area of storage allocated above 16 MB but below 2 GB and used for eligible, reentrant CICS and user application programs, which must be link-edited with the RENT and RMODE(ANY) attributes. The storage is obtained in key 0, non-fetch-protected storage, if the system initialization parameters include RENTPGM=PROTECT. If RENTPGM=NOPROTECT is specified, the ERDSA is in CICS-key storage.

extended restart (XRST)
A restart, initiated by a DL/I call, that reestablishes database positioning and user-specified areas.

extended shared dynamic storage area (ESDSA)
The user-key storage area for any non-reentrant user-key RMODE(ANY) programs, and also for any storage obtained by programs issuing CICS GETMAIN commands for storage above 16 MB but below 2 GB with the SHARED option.

extended system queue area (ESQA)
A major element of z/OS virtual storage above the 16 MB line. This storage area contains tables and queues relating to the entire system. It duplicates above the 16 MB line the system queue area (SQA).

extended user dynamic storage area (EUDSA)
Storage area allocated above 16 MB but below 2 GB used for data and for user application programs that execute in user-key and are eligible to reside above 16 MB but below 2 GB, but that are not eligible for the ERDSA (that is, not reentrant.)

Extensible Markup Language (XML)
A standard metalanguage for defining markup languages that is based on Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

extent
A continuous space on a disk, direct-access storage volume, or diskette that is occupied by or reserved for a particular data set, data space, or file.

external call interface (ECI)
An application programming interface that allows a non-CICS program running on a client to call a CICS program located on a CICS server. Data is exchanged in the COMMAREA as for normal CICS interprogram communication.

external CICS interface (EXCI)
A CICS application programming interface that helps to make CICS applications more easily accessible from non-CICS environments. It enables a non-CICS program (a client program) running in MVS to call a program (a server program) running in a CICS Transaction Server region and to pass and receive data by means of a communications area.

external presentation interface (EPI)
An application programming interface that allows a non-CICS client program to appear to a CICS server as one or more standard 3270 terminals. This enables the client to access, for example, CICS transactions written for 3270 terminals, without needing to change the CICS code.

external security manager (ESM)
A security product that performs security checking on users and resources. RACF is an example of an ESM.

extrapartition transient data
A CICS facility for temporarily saving data in the form of queues, called destinations.
See also intrapartition transient data.

Extra Performance Linkage (XPLINK)
A type of call linkage that can improve performance in an environment of frequent calls between small functions.



factory
In object-oriented programming, a class that is used to create instances of another class. A factory is used to isolate the creation of objects of a particular class into one place so that new functions can be provided without widespread code changes.

FBA disk device
See fixed-block architecture disk device.

FCT
See file control table.

feature
Part of a product that is either included with the product or can be ordered separately.

feed
A data format that contains periodically updated content that is available to multiple users, applications, or both.
See also Atom, Really Simple Syndication.

FEPI
See front-end programming interface.

FEPI pool
In the CICS Front End Programming Interface (FEPI), a collection of nodes and targets.

FFDC
See first-failure data capture.

field
An area into which a particular category of data or control information is entered.

field definition macro (DFHMDF)
In BMS, a macro that defines a field within a map defined by the previous DFHMDI macro.
The DFHMDF macro specifies initial attributes to be given to fields within a map.
See also map definition.

field-level access checking
The RACF facility by which a security administrator can control access to fields or segments in a RACF profile.

field-level sensitivity
The ability of an application program to access data at the field level.

file
A collection of related data that is stored and retrieved by an assigned name.

file control table (FCT)
A CICS table containing the characteristics of the files accessed by file control.

file-owning region (FOR)
See data-owning region.

file request thread element (FRTE)
An element used by CICS file control to link related requests together as a file thread; to record the existence of READ SET storage to be released at syncpoint and the existence of any other outstanding work that must be completed at syncpoint; to register a task as a user of a file to prevent the file being closed while still in use.

filter
The set of predicates that are used to determine whether an event is captured. If all predicates are true, the event is captured.

fire status
A Boolean flag indicating whether or not an event has occurred (fired). The fire status of an event can be either FIRED (true) or NOTFIRED (false).

firewall
A network configuration, typically both hardware and software, that prevents unauthorized traffic into and out of a secure network.

first-failure data capture (FFDC)
A problem diagnosis aid that identifies errors, gathers and logs information about these errors, and returns control to the affected runtime software.

fixed-block architecture disk device (FBA disk device)
A disk device that stores data in blocks of fixed size.
These blocks are addressed by block number relative to the beginning of the file.
See also extended count key data device.

flow
A single transmission of data passing over a link during a conversation.

FME
See function management end.

FMH
See function management header.

FOR
See file-owning region.

format
The arrangement or layout of data in a data medium.

format independence
The ability to send data to a device without having to be concerned with the format in which the data is displayed. The same data may appear in different formats on different devices.

forward recovery
The process of reconstructing a file from a particular point by restoring a saved version of the file and then applying changes to that file in the same order they were originally made.

fragmentation
An operating system's process of writing different parts of a file to discontiguous sectors on a computer storage medium when contiguous space that is large enough to contain the entire file is not available. When data is thus fragmented, the time that it takes to access the data may increase because the operating system must search different tracks for information that should be in one location.

front-end programming interface (FEPI)
A separately-installable function of CICS Transaction Server that enables communication with non-LU6.2 partners by simulating an LU0 or LU2 device. FEPI allows CICS to communicate with existing applications on LU0 or LU2 systems without change to those applications.

front-end system
A system that provides access to applications that run on other systems.

front-end transaction
In synchronous transaction-to-transaction communication, the transaction that acquires the session to a remote system and initiates a transaction on that system.
See also back-end transaction.

FRTE
See file request thread element.

full trace
Option for formatting CICS trace entries.
Full trace shows all the data for each trace entry.
See also abbreviated trace.

fullword
A sequence of bits or characters that comprises four bytes (one word) and is referred to as a unit.

function
  1. A machine action such as carriage return or line feed.
  2. Any instruction or set of related instructions that performs a specific operation.
    See also macro.

function key
A keyboard key that can be programmed to perform certain actions.

function management end (FME)
An SNA logical unit response type that CICS terminal control receives from a logical unit.

function management header (FMH)
One or more headers, optionally present in the leading request units (RUs) of an RU chain, that allow one LU to (a) select a transaction program or device at the session partner and control the way in which the end-user data it sends is handled at the destination, (b) change the destination or the characteristics of the data during the session, and (c) transmit between session partners status or user information about the destination (for example, a program or device). Function management headers can be used with LU type 1, 4, and 6.2 protocols.

function shipping
The process, transparent to the application program, by which CICS accesses resources when those resources are actually held on another CICS system.



garbage collection
Part of a language's runtime system or an add-on library that automatically determines the memory that a program no longer uses, and recycles it for other use. Garbage collection may be assisted by the compiler, the hardware, the operating system, or any combination of the three.

GCDSA
See Grande CICS dynamic storage area.

GDDM
See Graphical Data Display Manager.

GDS
See generalized data stream.

GDSA
See Grande dynamic storage area.

generalized data stream (GDS)
The SNA-defined data stream format used for basic conversations on APPC sessions.

generalized sequential access method (GSAM)
A database access method that allows batch application programs to access a sequential data set record that is defined as a database record. This database record is handled as one unit, with no segments, fields, or hierarchical structure. Any records to be added are inserted at the end of the database. GSAM does not allow database records to be updated or deleted.

generalized trace facility (GTF)
A z/OS service program that records significant system events such as I/O interrupts, SVC interrupts, program interrupts, and external interrupts.

general log
A general purpose log stream used by CICS for any of the following: forward recovery logs, autojournals, or user journals.
See also system log.

general resource
In RACF, any system resource, other than an MVS data set, that is defined in the class descriptor table (CDT). In MVS, general resources include DASD volumes, tape volumes, load modules, terminals, IMS and CICS transactions and other CICS resources, and installation-defined resource classes.

general resource profile
In RACF, a profile that provides protection for one or more general resources.
The information in the profile can include the general resource profile name, profile owner, universal access authority, access list, and other data.
See also profile.

generate
To produce a computer program by selection of subsets from skeletal code under the control of parameters.

generic alert
A Systems Network Architecture (SNA) Network Management Vector that enables a product to signal a problem to the network. CICSPlex SM uses generic alerts as part of its interface to NetView.

generic gate
Gives access to a set of functions that are provided by several domains.

generic key
In systems with VSAM, a leading portion of a key, containing characters that identify those records that are significant for a certain application. The key is one or more consecutive characters, taken from a data record, used to identify the record and establish its order with respect to other records.

generic profile
A Resource Access Control Facility (RACF) profile that contains security information about multiple resources that have similar characteristics, similar naming conventions, and require a similar level of protection.
See also data set profile, discrete profile, profile, resource profile.

GID
See group ID.

global access checking
An RACF feature that is used to improve performance of authorization checking for selected resources.

global catalog
A system data set in which CICS records CICS system information.
See also local catalog.

global catalog domain
Together with the local catalog domain, a repository used by other CICS domains to hold information to allow an orderly restart. The two catalog domains enable CICS code to read, write, and purge records on the global and local catalog data sets so that a record of the CICS state can be maintained when CICS is not running.

globalization
In computing, the provision of a single software solution that has multicultural support, and a user interface and documentation that is available in one or more languages.

global resource serialization (GRS)
A component of z/OS that serializes the use of system resources and converts hardware reserves on direct access storage device (DASD) volumes to data set enqueues.

global trap/trace exit
A problem-determination function controlled by the CSFE CICS transaction.

global user exit
A point in a CICS module at which CICS can pass control to a user-written program (known as an exit program), and then resume control when the program has finished.
When an exit program is enabled for a particular exit point, the program is called every time the exit point is reached.
See also task-related user exit.

global work area (GWA)
An area provided by CICS for a user exit program when the user exit program is enabled.

global zone
Logical division of the SMP/E consolidated software inventory (CSI).

goal mode
A workload management mode for an MVS image in a sysplex using an MVS workload management service definition to automatically and dynamically balance its system resources according to the active service policy for the sysplex.

Grande CICS dynamic storage area (GCDSA)
See Grande dynamic storage area.

Grande dynamic storage area (GDSA)
The dynamic storage area above 2 GB.

Graphical Data Display Manager (GDDM)
An IBM computer-graphics system that defines and displays text and graphics for output on a display or printer.

group
  1. A collection of users who can share access authorities for protected resources.
  2. In resource definition online, a collection of related resources. The main purpose of an RDO group is convenience in storing definitions in the CSD.

group authority
Authority to use objects, resources, or functions from a group profile.

group data set
In z/OS, a RACF-protected data set in which either the high-level qualifier of the data set name or the qualifier supplied by an installation exit routine is a RACF group name.
See also user data set.

group ID (GID)
In Resource Access Control Facility (RACF), a string of one to eight characters that identifies a group. The first character must be A through Z, #, $, or @. The rest can be A through Z, #, $, @, or 0 through 9.

group profile
A profile that provides the same authority to a group of users.

group-related user attribute
In RACF, a user attribute assigned at the group level that allows the user to control the resource, group, and user profiles associated with the group and its subgroups.

group terminal option
In RACF, a function that allows users within a group to log on only from those terminals that they have been specifically authorized to use.

GRS
See global resource serialization.

GSAM
See generalized sequential access method.

GTF
See generalized trace facility.

GWA
See global work area.



handler
In the CICS Front End Programming Interface (FEPI), a transaction initiated to handle specified events.

handshake
The exchange of messages at the start of a Secure Sockets Layer session that allows the client to authenticate the server using public key techniques (and, optionally, for the server to authenticate the client) and then allows the client and server to cooperate in creating symmetric keys for encryption, decryption, and detection of tampering.

hardware (H/W)
The physical components of a computer system.
See also software.

HDAM
See hierarchical direct access method.

health policy
A set of rules that an administrator can define and use to monitor conditions and take actions when the conditions occur.

heartbeat
A signal that one entity sends to another to convey that it is still active.
See also Remote Technical Assistance and Information Network.

heuristic decision
A decision to force a commit or rollback of a logical unit of work in part of a transaction program network that is using the two-phase commit protocol. A heuristic decision is made when a system or communication failure prevents the logical unit of work from being completed.

HFS
See hierarchical file system.

HIDAM
See hierarchical indexed direct access method.

hierarchical direct access method (HDAM)
A database access method using algorithmic addressability to records in a hierarchic direct organization. A choice of OSAM or VSAM ESDS is available as a base for HDAM.

hierarchical file system (HFS)
A system for organizing files in a hierarchy, as in a UNIX system.

hierarchical indexed direct access method (HIDAM)
A database access method used for indexed access to records in a hierarchic direct organization. It provides indexed access to the root segments and pointer access to subordinate segments.

hierarchy
The tree-like arrangement of segments in a database, beginning with the root segment and proceeding down to dependent segments.

high-level language (HLL)
A programming language that provides some level of abstraction from assembler language and independence from a particular type of machine.

high-performance option (HPO)
An option provided with MVS to improve performance by reducing the transaction pathlength; that is, the number of instructions needed to service each request.

high private area
Part of the CICS address space, consisting of the local system queue area (LSQA), the scheduler work area (SWA), and subpools 229 and 230.
The area at the high end of the CICS address space is not specifically used by CICS, but contains information and control blocks that are needed by the operating system to support the region and its requirements.
See also local system queue area.

high-speed sequential processing (HSSP)
An option, available only to batch message programs, for optimizing the sequential processing of DEDB areas. A simultaneous image copy can also be created.

high-water mark
The highest value reached in a set of readings taken over a period of time.

hiperspace
A high-performance, virtual-storage space of up to 2 gigabytes (GB). Unlike an address space, a hiperspace contains only user data and does not contain system control blocks or common areas; code does not execute in a hiperspace. Unlike a data space, data in a hiperspace cannot be referenced directly; data must be moved to an address space in blocks of 4 KB before being processed.

HLL
See high-level language.

hop
One segment of a transmission path between adjacent nodes in a routed network.

hop count
A measure of the links between two systems on a network. A hop count of 5 means that four gateways separate the source and destination machines.

hop data
A packet of data transferred from one system to another that describes context about some earlier processing. Transaction tracking has two types of hop data: origin data and previous hop data.

host
A computer that is connected to a network and that provides an access point to that network.
The host can be a client, a server, or both a client and server simultaneously.
See also client, server.

host processor
The primary or controlling computer in a multiple computer installation.

HPO
See high-performance option.

HSSP
See high-speed sequential processing.

H/W
See hardware.



ICE
See interval control element.

ICF
See integrated catalog facility.

ICP
See interval control program.

ICRX
See Extended Identity Context Reference.

IDCAMS
See access method services.

Identity Markup Language (IdML)
The XML format that is used to store data in the discovery library.

identity propagation
The concept of preserving a user's security identity information (the distributed identity), regardless of where the identity information was created, for use during authorization and for auditing purposes.

identity provider (IdP)
A partner in a federation that has the ability to authenticate the identity of a user.

IDL
See Interface Definition Language.

IdML
See Identity Markup Language.

IdP
See identity provider.

image copy
A backup copy of a data set, used to restore the data set if necessary after a failure.

immediate disconnection
An option for disconnecting CICS from DBCTL, using the CDBC transaction.
Immediate disconnection allows only current DL/I requests to DBCTL from this CICS system to be completed before CICS is disconnected from DBCTL.
See also orderly disconnection.

immediate shutdown
A shutdown of CICS in which tasks in progress are not allowed to complete normally. This form of shutdown is requested from the master terminal.

IMS
See Information Management System.

IMS monitor
An optional facility that records the activity within the IMS control region and dependent regions.

IMS Resource Lock Manager (IRLM)
An IMS global lock manager that resides in its own address space. IRLM is required for block-level database sharing, either under DBCTL control or in an IMS data sharing environment.

index
  1. A table that contains key values or references for locating information in an indexed file.
  2. A set of pointers that is logically ordered by the values of a key. Indexes provide quick access to data and can enforce uniqueness of the key values for the rows in the table.

indexed sequential access method (ISAM)
An access method that can be used for either direct or sequential update or retrieval.

index record
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a collection of index entries that are retrieved and stored as a group.

indirect destination
In CICS, a type of transient data destination that points to another destination within the destination control table, rather than directly to a queue.

indoubt
In CICS, the state at a particular point in a distributed UOW for which a two-phase commit sync point is in progress.

indoubt window
The period between the sending of a sync point request to a remote system and the receiving of a reply. During this period, the local system does not know whether the remote system has committed its changes. If processing fails in the in-doubt window, recovery processing must resolve the status of any work that is in doubt.

inflight
The state of a resource or unit of recovery that has not yet completed the prepare phase of the commit process.

inflight task
During emergency restart, a task that caused records to be written to the system log, but for which no syncpoint record has been found for the current LUW. This task was interrupted before the LUW completed.

Information Management System (IMS)
Any of several system environments that have a database manager and transaction processing that can manage complex databases and terminal networks.

information source
The part of the capture specification which defines where an emitted business information item is obtained. There must be an information source for each item of emitted business information.

initial data
A type of inbound data that arrives when a new session is bound. This is commonly called a "good morning" message.

initialization
Actions performed by the CICS system to construct the environment in the CICS region to enable CICS applications to be run.

initial program load (IPL)
The process of loading the operating system and other basic software into main storage.

initiator
The role of a node using the two-phase commit protocol when its local transaction program issues a commit operation that begins the two-phase commit flows. The initiator is the root node of a transaction program network.

input event
An atomic event that can be sent to an activity by its parent, or from outside the process.
It tells the activity why it has been activated.
See also system event.

input/output (I/O)
Pertaining to a device, process, channel, or communication path involved in data input, data output, or both.

input/output PCB (I/O PCB)
Program communication block needed to issue DBCTL service requests.

input partition
In BMS, a partition holding input required by the logic of the program and nominated in the associated RECEIVE MAP command.

inquiry
A request for information in storage.

installation
  1. The process of adding a hardware or software component to a computing environment.
  2. A particular computing system, including the work it does and the people who manage it, operate it, apply it to problems, service it, and use the results it produces.

installation signature
In a CICS resource, information about when, how, and by whom the resource was installed.
See also resource signature.

installation verification procedure (IVP)
A program or programs that are run at the end of installation of an IBM licensed program, in order to verify that the program is working correctly.

integrated catalog facility (ICF)
A component that provides integrated catalog facility catalogs.
See also integrated catalog facility catalog.

integrated catalog facility catalog
A catalog that consists of a basic catalog structure, which contains information about VSAM and non-VSAM data sets, and at least one VSAM volume data set, which contains data about VSAM data sets only.
See also integrated catalog facility.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
An international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines.

integrity
The quality of data that exists as long as destruction, alteration, loss of consistency, or loss of data are prevented.

intent scheduling
In IMS or SQL/DS, ensuring that a particular segment type of a database is accessible for potential update by only one task at a time.

interactive
Pertaining to a program or system that alternately accepts input and responds.

interactive interface
A system facility which controls how different users see and work with the system by means of user profiles. When signing on, the interactive interface makes available those parts of the system authorized by the profile. The interactive interface has sets of selection-and data-entry panels through which users communicate with the system.

Interactive Problem Control System (IPCS)
A component of MVS and z/OS that permits online problem management, interactive problem diagnosis, online debugging for disk-resident abend dumps, problem tracking, and problem reporting.

Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF)
An IBM licensed program that serves as a full-screen editor and dialog manager.
Used for writing application programs, it provides a means of generating standard screen panels and interactive dialogs between the application programmer and the terminal user.
See also Time Sharing Option.

interchange code
An accepted convention for computer character representation. An interchange code typically defines several code pages. EBCDIC and ASCII are interchange codes.

intercommunication
In CICS, a term embracing intersystem communication (ISC) and multiregion operation (MRO).

Interface Definition Language (IDL)
In CORBA, a declarative language that is used to describe object interfaces, without regard to object implementation.

interlock
See deadlock.

intermediate routing node (IRN)
A subarea node, which may receive and route sessions that neither originate in nor are destined for network addressable units in that subarea node.

internal lock
A mechanism used by CICS to protect individual resource definitions against concurrent updates.

internal resource lock manager (IRLM)
A global lock manager that resides in its own address space and provides the option of keeping most of its control blocks in local storage rather than the common storage area.

internal response time
Elapsed time from the message to start a transaction being received by CICS until the time that the transaction ends.

internal throughput rate (ITR)
The number of completed transactions per processor-busy second. (Processor busy seconds can be calculated by multiplying elapsed seconds by the processor utilization percentage).

internal trace
A CICS trace facility that is present in virtual storage. When CICS detects an exception condition, an entry always goes to the internal trace table, even if you have turned tracing off.

International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
An international body charged with creating standards to facilitate the exchange of goods and services as well as cooperation in intellectual, scientific, technological, and economic activity.

International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T, Telecommunication Standardization Sector)
The part of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) that is responsible for developing recommendations for telecommunications.

Internet Protocol (IP)
A protocol that routes data through a network or interconnected networks.
This protocol acts as an intermediary between the higher protocol layers and the physical network.
See also Internet Protocol version 4, Internet Protocol version 6, Transmission Control Protocol.

Internet Protocol interconnectivity (IP interconnectivity, IPIC)
Intersystem communication in which CICS regions communicate using a TCP/IP network.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4)
The fourth, and most widely deployed revision in the development of the Internet Protocol.
See also Internet Protocol, Internet Protocol version 6.

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)
The sixth revision in the development of the Internet Protocol. It is the next generation after IPv4. See also Internet Protocol, Internet Protocol version 4.

interregion communication (IRC)
The method by which CICS provides communication between a CICS region and another region in the same processor.
Interregion communication is used for multiregion operation (MRO).
See also intersystem communication.

intersystem communication (ISC)
A CICS facility that provides inbound and outbound support for communication from other computer systems.
See also interregion communication.

inter-transaction affinity
A relationship between a set of transactions that share a common resource and coordinate their processing. Transaction affinity between two or more CICS transactions is caused by the transactions using techniques to pass information between one another, or to synchronize activity between one another, in a way that requires the transactions to execute in the same CICS region.

interval control element (ICE)
An entry under CICS interval control that is waiting in an unexpired state. Its defined date and time (to become current) are in the future. When an ICE expires it becomes an automatic initiation descriptor (AID).

interval control program (ICP)
The CICS program that provides time-dependent facilities. Together with task control, interval control (sometimes called time management) provides various optional task functions (such as system stall detection, runaway task control, and task synchronization) based on specified intervals of time, or the time of day.

interval statistics
In CICS Transaction Server only, CICS statistics gathered at user-specified intervals and written to the SMF data set.
See also end-of-day statistics, requested reset statistics, requested statistics, unsolicited statistics.

intrapartition transient data (TD)
A CICS facility for temporarily saving data in the form of queues, called destinations.
See also extrapartition transient data.

I/O
See input/output.

I/O PCB
See input/output PCB.

IP
See Internet Protocol.

IP address
A unique address for a device or logical unit on a network that uses the Internet Protocol standard.

IPCS
See Interactive Problem Control System.

IPIC
See Internet Protocol interconnectivity.

IP interconnectivity
See Internet Protocol interconnectivity.

IPL
See initial program load.

IPv4
See Internet Protocol version 4.

IPv6
See Internet Protocol version 6.

IRC
See interregion communication.

IRLM
  1. See internal resource lock manager.
  2. See IMS Resource Lock Manager.

IRN
See intermediate routing node.

ISAM
See indexed sequential access method.

ISC
See intersystem communication.

ISDN
See Integrated Services Digital Network.

ISO
See International Organization for Standardization.

isolation
Even though transactions execute concurrently, they appear to be serialized. In other words, it appears to each transaction that any other transaction executed either before it, or after it. See also ACID property.

ISO model
A set of rules for data communication, sanctioned by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO protocols enable systems supplied by different vendors to connect and communicate. They are the basis of the open systems interconnection (OSI) standards.

ISPF
See Interactive System Productivity Facility.

ITR
See internal throughput rate.

ITU-T
See International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector.

IVP
See installation verification procedure.



JAR
See Java archive.

JAR file
A Java archive file.
See also Java archive.

Java archive (JAR)
A compressed file format for storing all of the resources that are required to install and run a Java program in a single file.
See also JAR file, web archive.

Java-based SOAP pipeline
A provider or requester web services pipeline that is processed using the Axis2 SOAP engine. The processing of this pipeline is eligible for offloading to the zSeries Application Assist Processor (zAAP).

Java class library for CICS (JCICS)
A set of Java classes and methods that allows applications that are written in Java to access CICS-managed resources in a similar way to the CICS API that is used for applications that are written in procedural languages such as COBOL and PL/I.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
An industry standard for database-independent connectivity between the Java platform and a wide range of databases. The JDBC interface provides a call level interface for SQL-based and XQuery-based database access.

Java EE
See Java Platform, Enterprise Edition.

Java EE Connector Architecture (JCA)
A standard architecture for connecting the Java EE platform to heterogeneous enterprise information systems (EIS).

Java Message Service (JMS)
An application programming interface that provides Java language functions for handling messages.

Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI)
An extension to the Java platform that provides a standard interface for heterogeneous naming and directory services.

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE)
An environment for developing and deploying enterprise applications, defined by Oracle. The Java EE platform consists of a set of services, application programming interfaces (APIs), and protocols that provide the functionality for developing multitiered, web-based applications. (Oracle)

JavaScript Object Notation (JSON)
A lightweight data-interchange format that is based on the object-literal notation of JavaScript. JSON is programming-language neutral but uses conventions from various languages.

JavaServer Pages (JSP)
A server-side scripting technology that enables Java code to be dynamically embedded within web pages (HTML files) and run when the page is served, in order to return dynamic content to a client.

Java virtual machine (JVM)
A software implementation of a processor that runs compiled Java code (applets and applications).

JCA
See Java EE Connector Architecture.

JCICS
See Java class library for CICS.

JCL
See job control language.

JDBC
See Java Database Connectivity.

JMS
See Java Message Service.

JNDI
See Java Naming and Directory Interface.

job control language (JCL)
A command language that identifies a job to an operating system and describes the job requirements.
See also xJCL.

job scheduler
A component that provides all job-management functions. A job scheduler maintains a history of all jobs and usage data for jobs that have run.

JSON
See JavaScript Object Notation.

JSON schema
A JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) document that describes the structure and constrains the contents of other JSON documents.

JSP
See JavaServer Pages.

JVM
See Java virtual machine.

JVM server
A runtime environment that uses a single JVM to handle requests from multiple tasks concurrently.



Kerberos
A network authentication protocol that is based on symmetric key cryptography. Kerberos assigns a unique key, called a ticket, to each user who logs on to the network. The ticket is embedded in messages that are sent over the network. The receiver of a message uses the ticket to authenticate the sender.

kernel domain
Major component of CICS providing a consistent linkage and recovery environment for CICS. The application programmer has no external interface to kernel linkage.

Kernel Linkage
A component of CICSPlex SM that is responsible for building data structures and managing the interfaces between the other CICSPlex SM components. The environment built by Kernel Linkage is known as the method call environment.

key
One or more characters within an item of data that are used to uniquely identify a record and establish its order with respect to other records.

keypoint
The periodic recording of system information and control blocks on the system log - also the data so recorded.

key ring
In computer security, a file that contains public keys, private keys, trusted roots, and certificates.

key-sequenced data set (KSDS)
A VSAM file or data set whose records are loaded in key sequence and controlled by an index.

keystroke interface
The part of the Front End Programming Interface that allows a front-end application to specify a sequence of keystroke-like commands, which is used to define input to a back-end application.

keyword
One of the predefined words of a programming language, artificial language, application, or command.
See also parameter.

KSDS
See key-sequenced data set.



LAN
See local area network.

Language Environment
An element of z/OS that provides a common runtime environment and common runtime services for C/C++, COBOL, PL/I, and Fortran applications.

LANGUAGE segment
The portion of a RACF profile containing information about the national language in which the user receives messages.

last-in first-out (LIFO)
A queuing technique in which the next item to be retrieved is the item most recently placed on the queue.

LDAP
See Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

LDC
See logical device component.

Liberty repository
A repository that stores Liberty and other assets, including new product capabilities and configuration and administration resources.

library
A partitioned data set or a series of concatenated partitioned data sets.
See also partitioned data set extended.

library lookaside (LLA)
A z/OS facility that reduces library I/O activity by keeping selected directory entries and modules in storage, instead of making repetitive searches of DASD.

LIFO
See last-in first-out.

LIFO storage
Storage used by reentrant CICS management modules to save registers.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
An open protocol that uses TCP/IP to provide access to directories that support an X.500 model and that does not incur the resource requirements of the more complex X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP). For example, LDAP can be used to locate people, organizations, and other resources in an Internet or intranet directory.

line
  1. On a terminal, one or more characters entered before a return to the first printing or display position, or accepted by the system as a single block of output.
  2. The physical path in data transmission.

linkage editor
A computer program for creating load modules from one or more object modules or load modules by resolving cross-references among the modules and, if necessary, adjusting addresses.

link pack area (LPA)
The portion of virtual storage below 16 MB that contains frequently used modules.

link security
A limit on one system's authorization to attach transactions and access resources in another.
Link security works by signing on each end of a session (to RACF, in CICS Transaction Server) when the session is bound.
Each half-session then has the access requirements of the single user profile defined for the remote system as a whole.
This profile is applied when a transaction is attached and whenever the transaction accesses a protected resource.
See also session security.

LISTCAT
A VSAM tool that provides information that interprets the actual situation of VSAM data sets.

list-of-groups checking
A RACF option that allows a user to access all resources available to all groups of which the user is a member, regardless of the user's current connect group. For any particular resource, RACF allows access based on the highest access authority among the groups of which the user is a member.

LLA
See library lookaside.

loader
A program that copies an executable file into main storage so that the file can be run.

loader domain
Major component of CICS used by the domains of the CICS system to obtain access to storage-resident copies of nucleus and application programs, maps, and tables. In order to provide this, the loader domain interfaces with MVS to perform loading of programs into CICS-managed storage (DSA/EDSA) and scanning of the MVS link pack area.

load library
A library containing load modules.

load module
A program in a form suitable for loading into main storage for execution.

local
Pertaining to a device, file, or system that is accessed directly from a user system, without the use of a communication line.

local area network (LAN)
A network that connects several devices in a limited area (such as a single building or campus) and that can be connected to a larger network.
See also wide area network.

local catalog
A system data set that CICS uses to record data used by the internal workings of CICS.
See also global catalog.

local catalog domain
Together with the global catalog domain, a repository used by other CICS domains to hold information to allow an orderly restart. The two catalog domains enable CICS code to read, write, and purge records on the local and global catalog data sets so that a record of the CICS state can be maintained when CICS is not running.

local CMAS
The CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS) that a user identifies as the current context when performing CMAS configuration tasks.

local DL/I
DL/I residing in the CICS address space.

locale
A setting that identifies language or geography and determines formatting conventions such as collation, case conversion, character classification, the language of messages, date and time representation, and numeric representation.

locality of reference
The consistent reference, during the execution of an application program, to instructions and data within a relatively small number of pages for relatively long periods of time.

local request queue
A recoverable VSAM data set used to store pending BTS requests - for example, timers and unserviceable requests. It is used to ensure that, if CICS fails, no pending requests are lost.

local shared resource (LSR)
A file that shares a common pool of buffers and a common pool of strings; that is, control blocks supporting I/O operations, with other files.
See also nonshared resource.

local system
In a multisystem environment, the system on which an application program is executing.
A local application can process data from databases located on either the same (local) system or another (remote) system.
See also remote system.

local system queue area (LSQA)
An element of the CICS address space. It generally contains the control blocks for storage and contents supervision.
See also high private area.

local work area
Area provided for the use of a single task-related user exit program. It is associated with a single task and lasts for the duration of the task only.

lock
A mechanism with which a resource is restricted for use by the holder of the lock.

lock manager domain
Major component of CICS that provides locking and associated queueing for CICS resources. Before using these facilities, a resource must add a named lock for itself. This lock can then be requested as either exclusive or shared. If an exclusive lock is obtained, no other task many obtain the lock with that name; if a shared lock is obtained, multiple tasks may obtain that lock.

log
A file used to record changes made in a system.

logging
The recording of data about specific events on the system, such as errors.

logical database
A database composed of one or more physical databases arranged in a hierarchical structure based on relationships among data segments.
The structure of a logical database can be different from the physical structure of the data.
See also physical database.

logical device component (LDC)
A subcomponent (for example, a printer or a console) configured with a 3601, 3770 batch, 3770, 3790 batch or LU Type4 terminal. Each subcomponent is handled by BMS output commands as if it is a separate terminal.

logical message
A collection of formatted output data produced by chaining several smaller pieces of data. A user builds a logical message by issuing a series of BMS SEND commands.

logical partition (LP, LPAR)
One or more virtualized images of a hardware computing system that can include shared and dedicated resources assigned from the pool of resources available on a physical server. Each image appears to the operating system running within it to be a unique instance of a physical server.

logical recovery
Restoration of a facility to its status at a point just prior to any in-flight transaction activity.

logical unit (LU)
An access point through which a user or application program accesses the SNA network to communicate with another user or application program.

logical unit of work (LUW)
The processing that a program performs between synchronization points.

logical unit of work identifier (LUWID)
A name that uniquely identifies a thread within a network. This name consists of a fully qualified logical unit network name, a logical unit of work instance number, and a logical unit of work sequence number.

Logical Unit type 2 (LU type 2, LU2)
An SNA session that uses a 3270 device data stream to support communication between an application and a display.

log manager
A domain in CICS. The CICS log manager uses MVS system logger services to write CICS system logs, forward recovery logs, and user journals to log streams managed by the MVS system logger.

logname
The name of the CICS system log currently in use.
See also exchange log name.

log on
To connect to a computer system or network.

long running mirror
A mirror task that waits for the next sync point in a session, even though logically it does not need to do so.

LP
See logical partition.

LPA
See link pack area.

LPAR
See logical partition.

LSQA
See local system queue area.

LSR
See local shared resource.

LU
See logical unit.

LU0
See LU type 0.

LU2
See Logical Unit type 2.

LU3
See LU type 3.

LU4
See LU type 4.

LU 6
See LU type 6.

LU 6.1
See LU type 6.1.

LU type 0 (LU0)
Type of logical unit used for communicating with non-SNA terminals, using binary synchronous communication (BSC). LU0 enables the transmission of non-SNA protocols across an SNA network, and is heavily used for connecting non-SNA terminals. LU0 is more primitive than LU6.

LU type 1
An SNA logical unit type that provides a communication protocol among host application programs and terminals. Some printers also use this protocol to communicate with host application programs.

LU type 2
See Logical Unit type 2.

LU type 3 (LU3)
Type of logical unit, used for sending data to 3270 printers.

LU type 4 (LU4)
Type of logical unit, Used for communicating with office systems terminals.

LU type 6 (LU 6)
Type of logical unit, used for processor-to-processor communication. LUTYPE6 defines a number of processes (applications - the file model, the queue model, the DL/I model, and so on) which are used in CICS intersystem communication (ISC). LUTYPE6 also supports user application to user application communication. There is no BMS support for this LU Type.

LU type 6.1 (LU 6.1)
Type of logical unit used for processor-to-processor sessions. LU type 6.1 is a development of LU type 6. CICS - DL/I, IMS, or SQL/DS intercommunication uses LU type 6.1 sessions.

LU type 6.2
An SNA logical unit type that converges functions from existing LU types to provide a single, interchangeable communication protocol.
See also Advanced Program-to-Program Communication.

LUW
See logical unit of work.

LUWID
See logical unit of work identifier.



macro
An instruction that causes the execution of a predefined sequence of instructions.
See also function.

main storage
Program-addressable storage from which instructions and other data can be loaded directly into registers for subsequent execution or processing.

main storage database (MSDB)
A root-segment database that can be accessed at the segment level and resides in main storage during execution.

maintenance point
A CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS) that is responsible for maintaining CICSPlex SM definitions in its data repository and distributing them to other CMASs involved in the management of a CICSplex.

major object descriptor block (MODB)
In CICSPlex SM, a control structure built by Kernel Linkage during initialization of a CICSPlex SM component that contains a directory of all methods that make up that component. The structure of the MODB is the same for all components.

major object environment block (MOEB)
In CICSPlex SM, a control structure built by Kernel Linkage during initialization of a CICSPlex SM component and pointed to by the MODB. MOEB stores information critical to a CICSPlex SM component and anchors data used by the component. The structure of the MOEB is unique to the component it supports.

managed application system (MAS)
A running CICS Transaction Server for z/OS region that is being managed by CICSPlex SM. A MAS contains CICSPlex SM agent code that implements CICSPlex SM functions, such as data collection.

management bundle
A set of XML files that is parsed to define and install platforms and applications. A management bundle describes one artifact such as a platform, an application, or an application binding, and references bundles that contain resources relating to the artifact. An example of a management bundle is an application bundle. See also application, application binding, bundle, CICS bundle, platform, stand-alone CICS bundle.

management part
In a CICS cloud environment, a record for an application or platform that associates the application or platform with the CICS bundles that it manages in the CICS regions.

manifest
A file that describes the resources, the location of supporting artifacts, application prerequisites, and services that are included in a bundle to deploy part or all of an application.

map
In BMS, a format established for a page or a portion of a page, or a set of screen format descriptions. A map relates program variables to the positions in which their values appear on a display device. A map contains other formatting information such as field attributes. A map describes constant fields and their position on the display, the format of input and output fields, the attributes of constant and variable fields, and the symbolic names of variable fields.

MAP
See message addressing property.

map definition
Definition of the size, shape, position, potential content, and properties of BMS map sets, maps, and fields within maps, by means of macros.
See also field definition macro, map definition macro, map set definition macro.

map definition macro (DFHMDI)
In BMS, a macro that defines a map within the map set defined by the previous DFHMSD macro.
See also map definition.

mapped conversation
In advanced program-to-program communications (APPC), a temporary connection between an application program and an APPC session in which the system provides all the information on how the data is formatted.

mapping
In BMS, the process of transforming field data to and from its displayable form.

map set
In basic mapping support (BMS), one or more maps combined in a map set. Using a map set means that you can load simultaneously all maps needed for one application.

map set definition macro (DFHMSD)
A macro that is used to define a set of BMS maps.
See also map definition.

map set suffix
In BMS, a suffix relating different versions of a map set to different terminal models or partitions. This allows you to format the same data differently on different screen types, in response to the same programming request.

MAS
See managed application system.

mashup
A graphical interface that features two or more reusable web applications (widgets) presenting seemingly disparate data in an understandable combination for a specific purpose.

master
In a multi-MVS configuration, a region that issues commands to dependent regions at takeover time.
See also coordinator.

master terminal
  1. In CICS, the terminal at which a designated operator is signed on.
  2. The IMS logical terminal that has complete control of IMS resources during online operations.

master terminal function
A function that allows a user to dynamically control and alter the operation of a CICS system.

master terminal operator (MTO)
Any CICS operator authorized to use the master terminal functions transaction.

MDT
See modified data tag.

message addressing property (MAP)
An XML element that conveys addressing information for a web service message, such as a unique message ID, the destination of the message, and the endpoint references of the message.

message area
In BMS, the area of a screen used to send instruction messages to assist the operator in processing a transaction. This area should be separate from the application data area to allow communication with the operator, without disturbing the application data. The message area is normally the bottom one or two lines of the screen.

message cache
A temporary storage queue with the name DFHMxxxx, where xxxx is the identification of a logical unit, into which CICS reads messages (for message-protected tasks only) during emergency restart. A user-written inquiry program run after emergency restart can read the contents of message caches. CICS does not read or purge message caches.

message data set
The message data set is used principally to pass messages about the current state of specific resources from the active system to the alternate system. It is also used for the secondary surveillance signals of the active, alternate, or both CICS systems, when the control data set is unavailable for this purpose, either because the last write has not completed yet or because of I/O errors.

message domain
A repository for CICS messages that handles the sending of messages to transient data destinations or to the console. It also provides an interface for returning the text of a message to the caller.

message protection
A recovery and restart function provided by CICS. It logs input and output messages for SNA LUs and enables the messages to be recovered following a system failure.

message routing
A method used for building a logical message and routing it to one or more terminals. The message is scheduled, for each designated terminal, to be delivered as soon as the terminal is available to receive messages, or at a specified time. Terminal operators who receive the message use terminal operator paging commands to view it. A variety of operands on the ROUTE command allow you flexibility when specifying the message destinations.

message switching
The process of receiving a message, storing it, and forwarding it to its destination unaltered.

mirror task
A CICS task that services incoming requests that specify a CICS mirror transaction (CSMI, CSM1, CSM2, CSM3, CSM5, CPMI, CVMI, or a user-defined mirror transaction identifier).

mirror transaction
CICS transaction that recreates a request that is function shipped from one system to another, issues the request on the second system, and passes the acquired data back to the first system.

mixed traffic
A function of the z/OS Communications Server class of service facility. Different kinds of traffic can be assigned to the same virtual route, and, by selecting appropriate transmission priorities, undue session interference can be prevented.

MLPA
See modified link pack area.

MODB
See major object descriptor block.

mode
  1. In data communications, the set of rules and protocols to be used for a session.
  2. In CICS BTS, the processing state of an activity. An activity can be in an initial, active, dormant (that is, waiting for an event), cancelling, or complete mode.

modegroup
A z/OS Communications Server LOGMODE entry, which can specify (among other things) the class of service required for a group of APPC sessions.

modeset
In CICS, a group of APPC sessions. A modeset is linked by its mode name to a mode group (z/OS Communications Server LOGMODE entry) that defines the class of service for the modeset.

modified data tag
  1. In the attribute byte of each field in a BMS map, a bit that determines whether the field should be transmitted on a READ MODIFIED command (the command used by CICS for all except copy operations).
  2. An indicator, associated with each input or output field in a displayed record, that is automatically set on when data is typed into the field. The modified data tag is maintained by the display file and can be used by the program using the file.

modified link pack area (MLPA)
An area of virtual storage containing reenterable routines from system data sets that are to be part of the pageable extension of the link pack area (LPA) during the current initial program load (IPL).
See also pageable link pack area.

MOEB
See major object environment block.

monitoring
  1. The regular assessment of an ongoing production system against defined thresholds to check that the system is operating correctly.
    See also monitoring domain.
  2. Running a hardware or software tool to measure the performance characteristics of a system.

monitoring domain
In CICS, the domain responsible for producing performance information about each task.
See also monitoring.

monitoring record
Any of three types of task-related activity record (performance, event, and exception) built by the CICS monitoring domain.
Monitoring records are available to the user for accounting, tuning, and capacity planning purposes.
See also exception class data, performance class data.

MRO
See multiregion operation.

MSDB
See main storage database.

MTO
See master terminal operator.

multi-MVS environment
A physical processing system that is capable of operating more than one MVS image.
See also MVS image.

Multiple Virtual Storage (MVS)
An IBM operating system that accesses multiple address spaces in virtual storage.

multiprogramming
The concurrent execution of two or more computer programs by a computer.

multiregion operation (MRO)
Communication between CICS systems in the same processor without the use of SNA network facilities.
This allows several CICS systems in different regions to communicate with each other, and to share resources such as files, terminals, temporary storage, and so on.
See also CICSplex.

multitasking
A mode of operation in which two or more tasks can be performed at the same time.

multithreading
A mode of operation in which the operating system can run different parts of a program, called threads, simultaneously.

MVS
See Multiple Virtual Storage.

MVS/Data Facility Product (MVS/DFP)
A major element of MVS, including data access methods and data administration utilities.

MVS/DFP
See MVS/Data Facility Product.

MVS extended nucleus
A major element of MVS virtual storage.
This area duplicates the MVS nucleus above the 16 MB line.
See also MVS nucleus.

MVS image
A single occurrence of the MVS operating system that has the ability to process work.
See also multi-MVS environment, single-MVS environment.

MVS nucleus
A major element of MVS virtual storage. This static storage area contains control programs and key control blocks. The area includes the nucleus load module and is of variable size, depending on the installation's configuration. The nucleus is duplicated above the 16 MB line as the MVS extended nucleus. See also MVS extended nucleus.



NACP
See node abnormal condition program.

NAU
See network addressable unit.

NCP
See Network Control Program.

NEB
See node error block.

NEP
See node error program.

NET
See node error table.

NETNAME
In CICS, the name by which a CICS terminal or a CICS system is known to z/OS Communications Server.

network address
In SNA networking, an address that consists of subarea and element fields and identifies a link, link station, or network addressable unit.

network addressable unit (NAU)
In SNA networking, any device on the network that has a network address, including logical units, physical units, and system service control points.

network configuration
In SNA or TCP/IP, the group of links, nodes, machine features, devices, and programs that make up a data processing system, a network, or a communication system.

Network Control Program (NCP)
A program that controls the operation of a communication controller. See also emulation program.

Network Logical Data Manager (NLDM)
A program that collects and interprets records of errors detected in a network and suggests possible solutions. NLDM consists of commands and data services processors that comprise the Netview software monitor component.

network name
In SNA, a symbolic name by which end users refer to a network addressable unit (NAU), a link station, or a link.

Network Problem Determination Application (NPDA)
A program that collects and interprets records of errors detected in a network and suggests possible solutions. NPDA consists of commands and data services processors that comprise the Netview hardware monitor component.

NLDM
See Network Logical Data Manager.

node
  1. In communications, an end point of a communication link or a junction common to two or more links in a network. Nodes can be processors, communication controllers, cluster controllers, terminals, or workstations. Nodes can vary in routing and other functional capabilities.
  2. In a network, a point at which one or more functional units connect channels or data circuits.

node abnormal condition program (NACP)
A CICS program used by terminal control to analyze terminal abnormal conditions that are logical unit or node errors detected by z/OS Communications Server.

node error block (NEB)
A set of recording areas of the node error table used to count node errors relating to a single logical unit.

node error program (NEP)
A user-replaceable program used to allow user-dependent processing whenever a communication error is reported to CICS

node error table (NET)
Table used by the node error program.

nonconversational
A mode of CICS operation in which resources are allocated, used, and released immediately on completion of the task.

nonresponse mode
In IMS, a mode of terminal operation that allows asynchronous operations between the terminal operator and the application program. See also response mode.

nonshared resource (NSR)
A file that has its own set of buffers and control blocks. See also local shared resource.

nonswitched connection
A connection that does not have to be established by dialing. See also switched connection.

nonswitched line
A connection between computers or devices that does not have to be made by dialing. See also switched line.

no response
In SNA, a value in the form-of-response-requested field of the request header that directs the receiver of the request not to return any response, regardless of whether or not the request is received and processed successfully. See also definite response, exception response.

NPDA
See Network Problem Determination Application.

NSR
See nonshared resource.

nucleus
That portion of the CICS region that holds the CSA, management modules, control tables, and resident application programs.



OASN
See origin application schedule number.

object
In object-oriented design or programming, a concrete realization (instance) of a class that consists of data and the operations associated with that data. An object contains the instance data that is defined by the class, but the class owns the operations that are associated with the data.

Object Management Group (OMG)
A non-profit consortium whose purpose is to promote object-oriented technology and the standardization of that technology. The Object Management Group was formed to help reduce the complexity, lower the costs, and hasten the introduction of new software applications.

object module
A set of instructions in machine language that is produced by a compiler or assembler from a subroutine or source module and can be input to the linking program. The object module consists of object code.

Object Request Broker (ORB)
In object-oriented programming, software that serves as an intermediary by transparently enabling objects to exchange requests and responses.

OIDCARD
See operator identification card.

OLDS
See online log data set.

OMG
See Object Management Group.

online
Pertaining to the operation of a functional unit or device that is under the control of the system or of a host.

online log data set (OLDS)
A data set on direct access storage that contains the log records written by an online IMS system or Database Control (DBCTL). See also system log data set.

open system
A system that complies with industry-defined interoperability standards. An open system can be connected to other systems complying with the same standards.

open systems interconnection (OSI)
The interconnection of open systems in accordance with standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) for the exchange of information.

open task control block (open TCB)
A task control block that is dedicated to a single task. Multiple open TCBs can run concurrently in the address space. Several different types, or modes, of open TCBs are available for specific purposes. An application that is running on an open TCB cannot rely on quasi-reentrancy to protect shared resources from concurrent access by another program.

open TCB
See open task control block.

operating system (OS)
A collection of system programs that control the overall operation of a computer system.

operator identification (OPID)
A 1-to-3 character code that is assigned to each operator and is stored in the operator's terminal entry in the CICS terminal control table (TCTTE) when the operator signs on.

operator identification card (OIDCARD)
A small card with a magnetic stripe encoded with unique characters and used to verify the identity of a terminal operator to RACF.

OPID
See operator identification.

ORB
See Object Request Broker.

orderly disconnection
An option for disconnecting CICS from DBCTL using the CDBC transaction. It allows all existing DBCTL tasks to be completed before CICS is disconnected from DBCTL. See also immediate disconnection.

origin application schedule number (OASN)
An IMS recovery element in an external subsystem (for example, DB2). The OASN is equivalent to the unit-of-recovery ID in the CICS recovery token. It is coupled with the IMS ID to become the recovery token for LUWs in external subsystems.

orphan lock
An orphan lock is an RLS lock that is held by VSAM RLS but unknown to any CICS region. An RLS lock becomes an orphan lock if it is acquired from VSAM by a CICS region that fails before it can log it. A VSAM interface enables CICS, during an emergency restart, to detect the existence of these locks and release them.

OS
See operating system.

OSAM
See overflow sequential access method.

OSGi Alliance
A consortium of more than 20 companies, including IBM, that creates specifications to outline open standards for the management of voice, data and multimedia wireless and wired networks.

OSGi framework
A general-purpose, secure, and managed Java framework that supports the deployment of extensible and downloadable applications known as bundles.

OSGi service
An interface registered in the OSGi Service Platform and made available for receiving remote or local invocations.

OSGi Service Platform
A specification that delivers an open, common architecture for service providers, developers, software vendors, gateway operators, and equipment vendors to develop, deploy, and manage services in a coordinated way.

OSI
See open systems interconnection.

outage
A failure of a system, or planned down time for maintenance or upgrade.

outboard formatting
A technique for reducing the amount of line traffic between a host processor and an attached subsystem. The reduction is achieved by sending only variable data across the network. This data is combined with constant data by a program within the subsystem. The formatted data can then be displayed.

outbound
In communication, pertaining to data that is sent to the network.

overflow sequential access method (OSAM)
An IMS data management access method that combines selected characteristics of basic sequential access method (BSAM) and basic direct access method (BDAM) for handling data overflow from indexed sequential access method (ISAM).

owner
The user or group that creates a profile, or is named the owner of a profile. The owner can modify, list, or delete the profile.




pacing
In SNA, a technique by which the receiving system controls the rate of transmission of the sending system to prevent overrun.

page
  1. A fixed-length block of instructions, data, or both instructions and data that can be transferred between active physical memory and external page storage.
  2. The information that can be displayed at one time on the screen of a display device or in a window.

pageable link pack area (PLPA)
An area of virtual storage containing supervisor call (SVC) routines, access methods, and other read-only system and user programs that can be shared among users of the system. See also modified link pack area.

page allocation map (PAM)
A map containing information used by the storage domain to manage each of its five dynamic storage areas (DSAs).

page chaining
A facility available under full-function BMS. The terminal operator invokes a transaction that communicates with the terminal in the normal way. This invoked transaction might, in turn, build pages that are (if the SEND PAGE command in the invoked transaction specified RETAIN or RELEASE) chained to the pages built by the original transaction. The operator can then retrieve pages for either transaction, for example, for comparison.

page control area (PCA)
A 4-byte area placed by BMS at the end of the device-dependent data stream returned to the application.

page fault
A program interruption that occurs when an active page refers to a page that is not in memory.

page overflow
A condition that occurs when the next BMS map or block of text does not fit on the current page of the target terminal.

paging
The process of transferring instructions, data, or pages between real storage and external page storage.

PAM
See page allocation map.

PAPL
See participant adapter parameter list.

parallel activity
An activity that is being executed at the same time as another, within the same process instance. During the time that the two activities are both running, they are said to be executing in parallel.

parallel job manager
A facility and framework that submits and manages transactional batch jobs that run as a coordinated collection of independent parallel subordinate jobs.

parallel session
A single intersystem link that can carry multiple independent sessions. Parallel sessions are supported by CICS intersystem communication (ISC).

Parallel Sysplex
A sysplex that uses one or more coupling facilities.

parameter (parm)
A value or reference passed to a function, command, or program that serves as input or controls actions. The value is supplied by a user or by another program or process. See also keyword.

parameter manager domain
Major component of CICS providing a facility to inform CICS domains of system parameters during CICS initialization. These parameters are specified in the system initialization table (SIT), as temporary override parameters read from the SYSIN data stream or specified interactively at the system console. It also provides an operator correction facility for incorrectly specified system initialization parameter keywords early in CICS initialization.

parent activity
An activity that starts another activity, its child.

parm
See parameter.

participant adapter parameter list (PAPL)
An area in DRA storage used for communication between CICS and DRA. The PAPL holds CICS request codes and DRA return codes.

partition
In BMS, an addressable subset of a display device's internal resources, consisting of a fixed part of the device's screen, and a fixed part of its internal storage. See also presentation space, viewport.

partition dump
An unformatted dump of the entire CICS partition. It is produced by CICS from within the partition without operating system assistance. See also dump.

partitioned data set (PDS)
A data set on direct access storage that is divided into partitions, called members, each of which can contain a program, part of a program, or data. See also sequential data set.

partitioned data set extended (PDSE)
A data set that contains an indexed directory and members that are similar to the directory and members of partitioned data sets (PDSs). See also library.

partition set
In BMS, a group of partitions designed to share the same screen. CICS must load the whole partition set onto a terminal before it can communicate with any of the partitions.

partition specification table (PST)
An IMS control block that contains information about a dependent region.

partner
In distributed processing, any one of the separate communicating parts of an application. In CICS intercommunication, a transaction communicating with a remote transaction or system. A CICS program using the SAA communications interface requires a local PARTNER resource definition for its remote partner.

partner logical unit (partner LU)
In SNA, the remote participant in a session.

partner LU
See partner logical unit.

PassTicket
In RACF secured sign-on, a dynamically generated, random, one-time-use, password substitute that a workstation or other client can use to sign on to the host rather than sending a RACF password across the network.

password phrase
A string consisting of mixed-case letters, numbers, and special characters, including blanks, that is used to control access to data and systems.

path
In DL/I, the chain of segments within a record that leads to the currently-retrieved segment. The formal path contains only one segment occurrence from each level, from the root down to the segment for which the path exists.

path information unit (PIU)
In z/OS Communications Server, data sent by the host according to the definition of the VPACING parameter that determines how many messages can be sent in a session to the z/OS Communications Server application by another SNA logical unit without requiring that an acknowledgment be sent.

pathlength
The number of instructions executed for a particular function.

PCA
See page control area.

PCB
See program communication block.

PCP
See program control program.

PDI
See primary delay interval.

PDIR
See PSB directory.

PDS
See partitioned data set.

PDSE
See partitioned data set extended.

peer-to-peer
Pertaining to a form of distributed processing, in which the front-end and back-end of a conversation switch control between themselves. It is communication between equals.

PEM requester
Any APPC device or node capable of initiating a conversation with the architected sign-on transaction.

PEM server
Any APPC LU that supports the receive side of APPC PEM; that is, it can attach, but not initiate, the signon transaction.

PEP
See program error program.

performance
A measure of a system's ability to perform its functions, including response time, throughput, and number of transactions per second.

performance analysis
The use of one or more performance tools to investigate the reasons for performance improvement or deterioration.

performance class data
Detailed transaction-level monitoring data, which includes task identification information, resource request counts, CPU and dispatch times, and time spent waiting for I/O. Monitoring of performance (that is, the collection of performance class data) is activated by the MNPER system initialization parameter. See also monitoring record.

performance data section
One of the CICS data sections in a CICS monitoring record. It consists of a string of field connectors followed by one or more performance data records.

performance evaluation
The determination of how well a specific system is meeting or may be expected to meet specific processing requirements at specific interfaces. Performance evaluation, by determining such factors as throughput rate, turnaround time, and constrained resources, can provide important inputs and data for the performance improvement process.

performance improvement
The increase of the average throughput rate and operational capability, or the reduction of turnaround time.

persistent session
  1. An LU-LU session that z/OS Communications Server retains after the failure of a z/OS Communications Server application program. Following the application program's recovery, the application program restores or terminates the session.
  2. A session that remains active even though there is no activity on the session for a specified period of time.

persistent verification (PV)
An application security mechanism that maintains lists of verified user IDs and passwords so that they do not need to be resubmitted with each access request to secure resources.

PHP
See PHP Hypertext Preprocessor.

PHP Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP)
A widely used general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited for web development and can be embedded into HTML.

physical database
An ordered set of physical database records. See also logical database.

physical map
A set of instructions telling BMS how to format a display for a given device. BMS does this by imbedding control characters in the data stream.

physical partition
Part of a central processing complex (CPC) that operates as a CPC in its own right, with its own copy of the operating system.

physical recovery
Restoring a facility to its status at the time of failure.

PI
See program isolation.

PIP
See program initialization parameter.

pipe
A one-way communication path between a sending process and a receiving process.

pipeline
A sequence of message handler programs and, optionally, header-processing programs, that are run to handle a web service request. See also pipeline configuration file.

pipeline configuration file
An XML document that specifies the configuration of either a service requester pipeline or a service provider pipeline that handles a web service request. See also pipeline.

PIU
See path information unit.

plain old Java object (POJO)
An ordinary Java object, as distinguished from a special Java object, such as an enterprise bean or an entity bean.

platform
In a CICS cloud environment, a management bundle that describes a number of logically related CICS regions and provides services and resources for application deployment. A platform can use CICS bundles to provide additional CICS resources and policy for the applications deployed to them. See also application, application binding, CICS bundle, management bundle.

PL/I
A procedure-oriented language designed for solving complex scientific problems or for running complicated business applications.

PLPA
See pageable link pack area.

PLT
See program list table.

PLU
See primary logical unit.

plug-in
A separately installable software module that adds function to an existing program, application, or interface.

pointer
A data element or variable that holds the address of a data object or a function.

POJO
See plain old Java object.

policy
A set of considerations that influence the behavior of a managed resource or a user.

policy document
An XML document that contains the policies that have the same scope.

polling
The process whereby stations are invited, one at a time, to transmit.

pool thread
A thread which is used by the CICS DB2 attachment facility for transactions and commands that do not use an entry thread or a command thread. See also command thread, entry thread.

port of entry
The name and type of device from which a user signs on. CICS recognizes only TERMINALs and CONSOLEs.

POSIT
A number that is specified for each class in the class descriptor table that identifies a set of flags that control RACF processing options.

predicate
An expression used as part of a filter, consisting of a data item, an operator, and a value. A predicate is used to restrict the occasions when an event is emitted.

prefixed save area (PSA)
An element of MVS virtual storage which contains processor-dependent status information.

prefixing
Specifying at system initialization that you want CICS to prefix the resource names that it passes to RACF for authorization with the RACF user ID under which the CICS region is running.

pregenerated system
A CICS system distributed in a form that has already undergone the system generation process.

prepare phase
The first phase of a two-phase commit process in which all participants are requested to prepare for commit.

presentation logic
The part of a distributed application that is concerned with the user interface of the application. See also business logic.

presentation space
A portion of the device's buffer storage, allocated to a partition, that contains only display data that CICS sends to that partition. See also partition.

preset terminal security
When a CICS region is started, the signing on of selected terminals as users whose user IDs are the terminal identifiers. Persons using these terminals have the authorizations given to the terminals.

previous hop data
A set of information that identifies the remote sender of a request to attach a task and creates a trail to be followed back into the previous system. This process enables data gathering and monitoring to continue in the region that sent the request. Previous hop data is created for a task when it has been initiated by a task in another CICS system.

primary delay interval (PDI)
The interval that must elapse between the apparent loss of surveillance signal from the alternate system and any reaction by the active system. This interval is set by the PDI system initialization parameter.

primary index
In VSAM, the set of primary keys that provide the standard path for access to the data set.

primary key
In each record of a VSAM KSDS, an identifying field. The key of each record is a field in a predefined position within the record. Each key must be unique in the data set.

primary logical unit (PLU)
In SNA, the logical unit that contains the primary half-session for a particular logical unit-to-logical unit (LU-to-LU) session. See also secondary logical unit.

primary predicate
A predicate associated with a capture point. A primary predicate is used to avoid a performance impact from too many events being considered as candidates for capture.

principal
An entity that can communicate securely with another entity. A principal is identified by its associated security context, which defines its access rights.

principal facility
The terminal or logical unit that is connected to a transaction at its initiation. See also alternate facility.

priority
A rank assigned to a task that determines its precedence in receiving system resources.

priority aging
A scheduling function used to ensure that waiting jobs will be selected to run before those jobs that have just entered the system.

private area
In CICS Transaction Server, an element of MVS virtual storage below the 16 MB line. It contains the local system queue area (LSQA), scheduler work area, subpools 229 and 230, a 16 KB system region area, and a private user region for running programs and storing data.

problem determination
The process of determining the source of a problem. Sources of a problem can include a program component, machine failure, telecommunication facilities, user or contractor-installed programs or equipment, or environmental failure such as a power loss, or user error.

process
In Business Transaction Services (BTS), a collection of one or more activities. A process is the largest unit that CICS business transaction services can work with, and has a unique name by which it can be referenced and invoked. Typically, a process is an instance of a business transaction.

process container
A data-container associated with a process. Process containers can be read by all the activities that make up the process. Note that they are not the same as the root activity's containers.

processing intent
The attribute defined in the PSB which specifies the program's database access privileges such as insert, delete, and replace.

processing thread
A connection between an application program and the CICSPlex SM API. A program can establish multiple processing threads, but each one is considered a unique API user; no resources can be shared across the boundary of a thread.

processor
In a computer, the part that interprets and executes instructions. Two typical components of a processor are a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit.

process type
The category to which a process belongs. All the activities in a process inherit the same process-type attribute. Categorizing processes makes it easier to find a particular process or activity - the BTS browsing commands allow filtering by process-type.

profile
  1. In CICS, a set of options specified in a resource definition that can be invoked by a transaction definition. Profiles control the interactions between the transaction and terminals or logical units.
  2. Data that describes the characteristics of a user, group, resource, program, device, or remote location. See also data set profile, discrete profile, general resource profile, generic profile, user profile.

program check
A condition that occurs when programming errors are detected by a processor during execution.

program communication block (PCB)
A control block that contains pointers to Information Management System (IMS) databases. See also program specification block.

program compression
An operation performed by program control to relieve space in the DSA during a short-on-storage condition. The list of program definitions is searched to identify programs that have been dynamically loaded and are currently not in use. If a program is not in use, the space it occupied is reclaimed. See also short-on-storage.

program control program (PCP)
The CICS program that manages CICS application programs.

program error program (PEP)
A user-replaceable program containing code to obtain program addressability, access the COMMAREA, and return control to the CICS abnormal condition program (DFHACP) through an EXEC CICS RETURN command.

program function key
See function key.

program initialization parameter (PIP)
The initial parameter value or values passed to a target program as input or used to set up the process environment.

program isolation (PI)
A DL/I or IMS facility that separates all the activity of an application program from any other active application program until that application program indicates, via a synchronization point, that the data it has modified or created is consistent and complete.

program library
A type of partitioned data set extended (PDSE) that contains program objects only. A program library is a PDSE from which programs are loaded into memory for execution by the operating system.

program list table (PLT)
A CICS control table that contains a list of programs that can run as a group during CICS startup or shutdown and can be enabled and disabled as a group by a single CEMT transaction.

program loading
The use of MVS load under an MVS subtask to load programs into CICS storage.

programmable terminal
A user workstation that has computational capabilities.

programmable workstation
A workstation that has some degree of processing capability and allows the user to change its functions.

program manager domain
A CICS domain that provides support for the following: program control functions; transaction ABEND and condition handling; related functions such as invoking user-replaceable modules, global user exits, and task-related user exits; autoinstallation for programs, map sets, and partition sets.

program specification block (PSB)
In DL/I and IMS, a control block that describes the databases and logical message destinations that are used by an application program. A PSB consists of one or more program communication blocks (PCBs). See also program communication block.

program status word (PSW)
An area in storage used to indicate the order in which instructions are executed, and to hold and indicate the status of the computer system.

program temporary fix (PTF)
For System i, System p, and System z products, a package containing individual or multiple fixes that is made available to all licensed customers. A PTF resolves defects and might provide enhancements.

property set
In the CICS Front End Programming Interface (FEPI), the definition of the characteristics of a pool.

provisioning policy
A policy that defines the access to various managed resources, such as applications or operating systems. Access is granted to all users, users with a specific role, or users who are not members of a specific role.

PSA
See prefixed save area.

PSB
See program specification block.

PSB directory (PDIR)
A list or directory of program specification blocks (PSBs) that define the use of databases by application programs for DL/I. It contains one entry for each PSB to be used during CICS execution, and is loaded during initialization.

pseudoconversational
In BTS, property of a task can be reattached ("reactivated") when a predefined event occurs, in order to take the next in a set of processing steps. See also activation.

pseudorecovery token
A token consisting of eight decimal characters, which can be used in place of the recovery token in certain circumstances. For example, a pseudorecovery token is displayed when the status of an application thread is in-doubt. It is made shorter so that it is easier to note and enter, for example, in certain DBCTL commands. See also recovery token.

PST
See partition specification table.

PSW
See program status word.

PTF
See program temporary fix.

publish
To bind a reference to the home of an enterprise bean in a namespace.

purge
The abnormal end of a task by task control to alleviate a short-on-storage condition.

PV
See persistent verification.



QSAM
See queued sequential access method.

quadword
A contiguous sequence of bits or characters that comprises of four computer words and can be addressed as a unit.

qualified call
A DL/I call that contains at least one segment search argument.

quasi-reentrant
Pertaining to CICS application programs that run under the CICS quasi-reentrant task control block (QR TCB). See also reenterable.

queue
  1. A line or list of items waiting to be processed, for example, work to be performed or messages to be displayed or transmitted.
  2. A data structure for processing work in which the first element added to the queue is the first element processed. This order is referred to as first-in first-out (FIFO).

queued sequential access method (QSAM)
An access method for storing and retrieving logical records in a continuous sequence. Input data blocks awaiting processing or output data blocks awaiting transfer to auxiliary storage are queued on the system to minimize delays in I/O operations.

Queue Manager
A component of CICSPlex SM that creates and manages queues of data in a cache that is shared by a CMAS and its local MASs.




RA
See repeat to address.

RACE
See receive-any control element.

RACF
See Resource Access Control Facility.

RACF database
A collection of interrelated or independent data items stored together without redundancy, to serve the Resource Access Control Facility (RACF).

RACF-protected
Pertaining to resources that are defined to RACF. A data set that is RACF-protected by a discrete profile must also be RACF-indicated.

RACF report writer
A RACF function that produces reports on system use and resource use from information found in the RACF System Management Facility (SMF) records.

RACF segment
The portion of a RACF profile that contains basic information needed to define a user, group, or resource to RACF.

RACHECK request
In RACF, the issuing of the RACHECK macro or the RACROUTE macro with REQUEST=AUTH specified. The primary function of a RACHECK request is to check a user's authorization to a RACF-protected resource or function. See also RACROUTE.

RACINIT request
In RACF, the issuing of the RACINIT macro or the RACROUTE macro with REQUEST=VERIFY or REQUEST=VERIFYX specified. A RACINIT request is used to verify the authority of a user to enter work into the system. See also RACROUTE.

RACROUTE
In RACF, a macro that provides a means of calling RACF to provide security functions. See also RACHECK request, RACINIT request.

RAIA
See receive-any input area.

RBA
See relative byte address.

RC
See return code.

RDB
See relational database.

RDM
See resource definition macro.

RDO
See resource definition online.

RDSA
See read-only dynamic storage area.

read integrity
An attribute of a read request, which ensures the integrity of the data passed to a program that issues a read-only request. CICS recognizes two forms of read integrity: consistent and repeatable. See also consistent, repeatable.

read intent
The type of access intent that subsystems use to read data from a database.

read-only dynamic storage area (RDSA)
The key-0 storage area for all reentrant programs and tables below the 16 MB line.

Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
An XML file format for syndicated web content that is based on the Really Simple Syndication specification (RSS 2.0). The RSS XML file formats are used by Internet users to subscribe to websites that have provided RSS feeds. See also Atom, feed.

realm
A named collection of users and groups that can be used in a specific security context.

real storage
The main storage in a virtual storage system. Physically, real storage and main storage are identical. Conceptually, however, real storage represents only part of the range of addresses available to the user of a virtual storage system.

real-time analysis (RTA)
In CICSPlex SM, a function that provides the automatic notification of requested error conditions and all aspects of a resource's status.

reattachment event
An event whose firing has caused an activity to be activated.

reattachment queue
A list of the reattachment events that have caused a particular activity to be activated. Each activity has a reattachment queue associated with it. The queue may be empty. Events remain on the reattachment queue until they are retrieved by the activity, or until a sync point occurs.

receive-any control element (RACE)
Type of control field held in the CICS receive-any pool set aside for VTAM receive-any operations. The number of RACEs maintained depends on the RAPOOL and MXT system initialization parameters and on the number of active tasks.

receive-any input area (RAIA)
Type of input area held in the CICS receive-any pool set aside for VTAM receive-any operations. The number of RACEs maintained depends on the RAPOOL and MXT system initialization parameters and on the number of active tasks.

RECON data sets
See recovery control data set.

recoverability
The ability of a system to continue processing without loss of data when an unplanned interruption occurs.

recoverable indoubt structure (RIS)
In DBCTL, an area constructed for each unit of recovery when a failure occurs. Each RIS is written to the IMS log. RIS contents include the recovery token, the changed data records, and the identity of the data block that cannot be accessed because of unresolved in-doubts.

recoverable resource
A resource that can be modified only in accordance with sync point protocols.

recoverable service element (RSE)
A set of DBCTL subsystem identifiers of equivalent DBCTL subsystems, their associated job names, and the specific APPLIDs of the CICS systems that will use them. RSEs are defined by CICS resource definition macros and are held in the recoverable service table (RST).

recovery
  1. The process of returning the system to a state from which operation can be resumed.
  2. The restoration of resources following an error.

recovery control data set (RECON data sets)
A data set in which DBRC stores information about logging activity and events that might affect the recovery of databases.

recovery log data set (RLDS)
A log data set that contains only the log records that are required for database recovery.

recovery manager
CICS resource recovery mechanism that provides a CICS resource manager, for example file control, with more flexibility than the DWE two-phase commit support for syncpoint and backout processing.

recovery point
In the CICS backup-while-open facility, the latest point, on the CICS forward recovery log series for this data set, from which forward recovery can start and restore any image copy taken at that point to a consistent state. The recovery point is held as a time that can be converted to a position on the forward recovery log.

recovery routine
A routine that is entered when an error occurs during the performance of an associated operation. It isolates the error, assesses the extent of the error, and attempts to correct the error and resume operation.

recovery time objective (RTO)
In disaster recovery planning, the total time one can allow for their systems to be offline.

recovery token
A 16-byte unique identifier that is created by CICS and passed to DBCTL for each logical unit of work (LUW). See also pseudorecovery token.

REDO
The DEDB process in the second phase of a two-phase commit process if the chosen action is COMMIT. For DEDBs, if phase two action is COMMIT, the changes are written to the database using REDO, because the DEDB changes have only been made in main storage. If the action is BACKOUT, no changes are required to the database because the updates are still in main storage. The process applied is called UNDO. REDO is also used to refer to the action required for committed DEDBs during emergency restart of IMS, DL/I, or SQL/DS.

reenterable
Pertaining to a module that is designed for concurrent execution by multiple tasks. If a reenterable module modifies its own data areas or other shared resources in any way, it must use appropriate serialization methods to prevent interference between using tasks. See also quasi-reentrant.

reentrant
The attribute of a program or routine that allows the same copy of the program or routine to be used concurrently by two or more tasks.

reference set
The amount of real storage required so that minimal (almost zero) virtual paging occurs. It is the total amount of real storage required to process the most frequently used sequence of instructions and data for a given set of transactions performing defined tasks, without causing any virtual storage paging operations.

region
In MVS, a variable-size subdivision of virtual storage that is allocated to a job step or system task. CICS Transaction Server runs in an MVS region, usually referred to as the CICS region.

region status server
A coupling facility data table server into which CICS regions broadcast generic system status data which is subsequently interrogated by CICSPlex SM for making dynamic routing decisions.

relational database (RDB)
A database that can be perceived as a set of tables and manipulated in accordance with the relational model of data. Each database includes a set of system catalog tables that describe the logical and physical structure of the data, a configuration file containing the parameter values allocated for the database, and a recovery log with ongoing transactions and archivable transactions.

relative byte address (RBA)
The offset of a data record or control interval from the beginning of the storage space that is allocated to the data set or file to which it belongs.

relative record data set (RRDS)
A type of Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data set whose records have fixed or variable lengths, and are accessed by relative record number.

relative record number (RRN)
A number that expresses the location of a record in relation to a base position in the file containing it.

relay program
In transaction routing, a CICS program that provides the communication mechanism between a locally-connected terminal and a transaction in a remote system. The relay program is invoked by the relay transaction.

relay transaction
In transaction routing, a CICS transaction that handles communication between a locally-connected terminal and a transaction in a remote system. The relay transaction invokes the relay program.

reliability
A measurement of the ability of a system to continue processing without failure. Shutting down an on-line system to process batch updates to the database reduces its availability to end users but has no bearing on the reliability of components required to deliver the online service.

remote
Pertaining to a system, program, or device that is accessed through a communication line.

remote DL/I
A special case of function shipping, in which CICS sends a DL/I request to another CICS system.

remote MAS
A managed application system (MAS) that uses MRO or LU 6.2 to communicate with the CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS) that controls it. A remote MAS may or may not reside in the same MVS image as the CMAS that controls it.

Remote Method Invocation (RMI)
A protocol that is used to communicate method invocations over a network. Java Remote Method Invocation is a distributed object model in which the methods of remote objects written in the Java programming language can be invoked from other Java virtual machines, possibly on different hosts.

remote resource
In CICS intercommunication, a resource that is owned by a remote system.

Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem (RSCS)
An IBM licensed program that transfers spool files, commands, and messages between VM users, remote stations, and remote and local batch systems through HASP-compatible telecommunication facilities.

remote system
Any other system in the network with which a system can communicate. See also local system.

Remote Technical Assistance and Information Network (RETAIN)
Database used by IBM Support Centers to record all known problems with IBM licensed programs. See also heartbeat.

repeatable
A type of read integrity in which a program is permitted to issue multiple read-only requests, with repeatable read integrity, and be assured that none of the records passed can subsequently be changed until the end of the sequence of repeatable read requests. The sequence of repeatable read requests ends either when the transaction terminates, or when it takes a syncpoint, whichever is the earlier. See also consistent, read integrity.

repeat to address (RA)
An order to position data in the buffer of a 3270 terminal, thereby controlling the position of the data on the screen. An RA order is followed by a 2-byte buffer address, and a one-byte character to be repeated. The order copies the one-byte character repeatedly into the buffer until the 2-byte address is reached.

replication logging
A logging facility that is used to replicate VSAM and RLS files from one location to another.

repository
A VSAM data set on which the states of BTS processes are stored. When a process is not executing under the control of BTS, its state (and the states of its constituent activities) are preserved by being written to a repository data set. The states of all processes of a particular process-type (and of their activity instances) are stored on the same repository data set. Records for multiple process-types can be written to the same repository.

repository utility
A CICS utility program, DFHBARUP, that enables you to print selected records from a specified BTS repository data set.

requested reset statistics
CICS statistics that the user has asked for by using the appropriate command or transaction, and specifying the RESETNOW option. The statistics are written to the SMF data set immediately, and the statistics counters are reset to zero. See also interval statistics, requested statistics, unsolicited statistics.

requested statistics
CICS statistics that the user has asked for by using the appropriate command or transaction, which causes statistics to be written immediately, instead of waiting for the current interval to expire. The request does not reset the statistics. See also interval statistics, requested reset statistics, unsolicited statistics.

request header (RH)
In SNA, the control information that precedes a request unit.

requesting region
The region in which a dynamic routing request originates. For dynamic transaction routing and inbound client dynamic program link requests, this is typically a TOR; for dynamic START requests and peer-to-peer dynamic program link requests, this is typically an AOR. To be eligible for dynamic routing, the process or activity must be started by an EXEC CICS RUN ASYNCHRONOUS command. See also routing region, target region.

request parameter list (RPL)
In VTAM, a control block that contains the parameters necessary for processing a request for data transfer, for establishing or terminating a session, or for some other operation.

request unit (RU)
In SNA, a message unit that contains data, control information, or both (for example, data and indicators).

residence mode
The attribute of a load module or program object that identifies where in virtual storage the program will reside.

resource
A facility of a computing system or operating system required by a job, task, or running program. Resources include main storage, input/output devices, the processing unit, data sets, files, libraries, folders, application servers, and control or processing programs.

Resource Access Control Facility (RACF)
An IBM licensed program that provides access control by identifying users to the system; verifying users of the system; authorizing access to protected resources; logging unauthorized attempts to enter the system; and logging accesses to protected resources.

resource definition macro (RDM)
A method of defining resources to CICS by using assembler macros. You code and assemble special CICS macros and present the assembler output to CICS at system initialization.

resource definition online (RDO)
A method for defining CICS resources interactively while CICS is running.

resource group class
A type of RACF class in which each user or group of users that is permitted access to that resource group is permitted access to all members of the resource group. See also resource group profile, resource member class.

resource group profile
A general resource profile in a resource group class. A resource group profile provides RACF protection for one or more resources with unlike names. See also resource group class.

resource manager interface (RMI)
A program or a group of programs that you write to enable you to structure calls from your CICS system in such a way that they can access non-CICS resources, such as databases, that you would not normally be able to access. See also task-related user exit.

Resource Measurement Facility (RMF)
A feature of z/OS that measures selected areas of system activity and presents the data collected in the format of printed reports, System Management Facility (SMF) records, or display reports.

resource member class
A class to which a resource group class is related. See also resource group class.

Resource Object Data Manager (RODM)
In Tivoli NetView for z/OS, a component that provides an in-memory cache for maintaining real-time data in an address space that is accessible by multiple applications.

resource profile
A profile that provides RACF protection for one or more resources. The information in a resource profile can include the data set profile name, profile owner, universal access authority, access list, and other data. Resource profiles can be discrete profiles or generic profiles. User, group, and connect profiles are not resource profiles. See also discrete profile, generic profile.

resource protection
The system function of enqueueing on a resource to provide exclusive control of that resource to a transaction until the end of a logical unit of work.

resource region
In CICS distributed program link, a CICS region to which an application region ships a LINK PROGRAM request.

resource security
In CICS Transaction Server, the facility provided by CICS and RACF for the control of access to resources protected by RACF security classes. The resources that can be protected include transactions, data sets, and transient data destinations.

resource signature
In a CICS resource, the combination of the definition signature and the installation signature. See also definition signature, installation signature.

response
In SNA, a message unit that acknowledges receipt of a request; a response consists of a response header (RH), a response unit (RU), or both.

response mode
A mode of terminal operation that synchronizes operations between the terminal operator and the application program. See also nonresponse mode.

response time
The elapsed time between entering an inquiry or request and receiving a response.

restart
Resumption of operation after recovery. Ability to restart requires knowledge of where to start and ability to start at that point.

restart data set (RSD)
A VSAM KSDS used only during a CICS emergency restart. The RSD temporarily holds the backout information read from the CICS system log. This allows CICS to be restored to a stable state and to be restarted following an abrupt termination.

RESTful
Pertaining to applications and services that conform to Representational State Transfer (REST) constraints.

results algorithm
An algorithm that manipulates the return codes of batch jobs or provides placeholders for triggers that are based on batch step return codes. A results algorithm is applied to batch steps in a batch application by using xJCL. See also checkpoint algorithm, xJCL.

resynchronization
The completion of an interrupted two-phase commit process for a unit of work.

RETAIN
See Remote Technical Assistance and Information Network.

retract
To remove the reference to the home of the bean in a namespace. Retract reverses the action of publish.

return code (RC)
A value returned by a program to indicate the result of its processing. Completion codes and reason codes are examples of return codes.

revoke count
Number of unsuccessful sign-on attempts since the last successful sign-on with a particular userid.

RH
See request header.

RIS
See recoverable indoubt structure.

RLDS
See recovery log data set.

RMF
See Resource Measurement Facility.

RMI
  1. See resource manager interface.
  2. See Remote Method Invocation.

RODM
See Resource Object Data Manager.

rollback
An operation in a transaction that reverses all the changes made during the unit of work. After the operation is complete, the unit of work is finished.

root activity
The activity at the top of an activity tree, which has no parent activity.

route list
A list that designates terminals or logical units, or particular operators, for which logical messages are to be scheduled for delivery.

router
An MVS program that presents a common systems interface for all products providing resource control. Resource managing components (such as CICS) call the MVS router as part of certain decision-making functions in their processing.

router exit
A point in the MVS router that can be modified to use a user-written or a vendor-supplied external security manager, instead of having the MVS router pass control to RACF.

routine
A program or sequence of instructions called by a program. Typically, a routine has a general purpose and is frequently used.

routing region
In the dynamic routing of BTS processes and activities, the CICS region on which the distributed routing program runs. In BTS routing, the routing region is the same as the requesting region. See also requesting region, target region.

routing transaction
A CICS transaction (CRTE) that enables an operator at a terminal owned by one CICS system to sign on to another CICS system connected by means of an IRC or APPC link.

RPL
See request parameter list.

RRDS
See relative record data set.

RRN
See relative record number.

RSCS
See Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.

RSD
See restart data set.

RSE
See recoverable service element.

RSS
See Really Simple Syndication.

RTA
See real-time analysis.

RTO
See recovery time objective.

RU
See request unit.

runaway task
A task that has been dispatched and does not return control to CICS within a user-specified time interval. The program being used by this task is in a loop between two CICS requests. The task control program ends the task after expiration of this time interval.

run unit
In COBOL, a set of one or more programs that run as a set to solve a problem. A set starts with the first COBOL program in the call stack and includes all programs (COBOL) (non-COBOL) that are below it in the call stack.



SAA
See storage accounting area.

SAA communications interface
A programming interface that allows program-to-program communication using the SNA APPC protocols.

SAA resource recovery interface
A programming interface that provides a consistent application programming interface for applications that make changes to protected system resources.

SAF
See System Authorization Facility.

SAM
See sequential access method.

SAML
See Security Assertion Markup Language.

sample statistics program (DFHOSTAT)
Batch program supplied with CICS which provides information that is useful in calculating the storage requirements of a CICS Transaction Server system, for example, the sizes of the dynamic storage areas.

SBA
See set buffer address.

SBCS
See single-byte character set.

SCA
See Service Component Architecture.

schedule
To request that a task set be started at a particular interval or on occurrence of a specified program interrupt. See also discovery.

scheduler work area (SWA)
An element of the CICS address space. The SWA is made up of subpools 236 and 237 which contain information about the job and the step itself. Almost anything that appears in the job stream for the step creates some kind of control block in this area.

scope
A named part of the CICSPlex SM environment that qualifies the context of a CICSPlex SM request. The scope can be the CICSplex itself, a CICS system, a CICS system group, or any set of CICS resources that are defined as a logical scope in a CICSPlex SM resource description. See also context.

scoping
A mechanism for controlling multiple sign-ons of the same user ID to one or more CICS regions.

screen
The physical surface of a display device upon which information is shown to a user.

Screen Definition Facility (SDF)
An interactive tool used to define and maintain maps, map sets, and partition sets for CICS and BMS applications.

screen-image interface
The part of the Front End Programming Interface that has a buffer with one byte for each screen position.

screen page
The amount of data displayed, or capable of being displayed, at any one time on the screen of a terminal.

SCS
See SNA character string.

SDF
See Screen Definition Facility.

SDLC
See Synchronous Data Link Control.

SDSA
See shared dynamic storage area.

SDT
See system dump table.

SDUMP
See system dump.

SDWA
See system diagnostic work area.

secondary index
In IMS or VSAM, any index used to provide a path for access to a data set other than that provided by the primary keys. See also alternate index.

secondary logical unit (SLU)
In SNA, the logical unit (LU) that contains the secondary half-session for one logical unit-to-logical unit (LU-to-LU) session. See also primary logical unit.

security
The protection of data, system operations, and devices from accidental or intentional ruin, damage, or exposure.

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML)
An XML framework for exchanging authentication and authorization information.

security category
A non-hierarchical grouping of sensitive information used to control access to data.

security classification
In RACF, the use of security categories, a security level, or both, to impose access controls. See also security level.

security label
In Resource Access Control Facility (RACF), an installation-defined name that corresponds to a specific RACF security level with a set of security categories.

security level
In RACF, an installation-defined name that is associated with a number in the range 1 through 254. The security level increases as the numbers become higher. See also security classification.

security manager domain
A CICS domain that handles all the interfaces to the external security manager, for example, RACF.

security role
In Java EE, an abstract logical grouping of users that is defined by the application assembler. When an application is deployed, the roles are mapped to security identities, such as principals or groups, in the operational environment. (Sun)

security token (STOKEN)
In RACF, a collection of security information that represents data to be accessed, a user, or a job. A security token contains a user ID, a group ID, a security label, the node of origin, and other information.

Security Token Service (STS)
A web service that acts as a trusted third party to broker trust relationships between a web service requester and a web service provider according to the WS-Trust protocol.

segment
In IMS, the unit of access to a database; for the database system, the smallest amount of data that can be transferred by one IMS operation.

segment search argument (SSA)
The portion of a DL/I call that identifies a segment or group of segments to be processed. Each SSA contains a segment name and, optionally, one or more command codes, and one or more qualification statements. Multiple SSAs may be required to identify the desired segment.

sequential access
The retrieval or storage of a VSAM or SAM data record in either its physical order or its collating sequence relative to the previously retrieved or previously stored record.

sequential access method (SAM)
An access method for storing, deleting, or retrieving data in a continuous sequence based on the logical order of the records in the file.

sequential data set
A data set whose records are organized based on their successive physical positions, such as on magnetic tape. See also partitioned data set.

serially reusable
The reusability attribute with which a program can be used sequentially by multiple tasks. A serially reusable module cannot be entered by a new task until the previous task has exited.

server
A software program or a computer that provides services to other software programs or other computers. See also client, host.

service class
A group of work that has the same service goals or performance objectives, resource requirements, or availability requirements. For workload management, a service goal and, optionally, a resource group is assigned to a service class.

Service Component Architecture (SCA)
An architecture in which all elements of a business transaction, such as access to web services, Enterprise Information System (EIS) service assets, business rules, workflows, databases and so on, are represented in a service-oriented way.

service definition
An explicit definition of all the workloads and processing capacity in a sysplex. A service definition includes service policies, workloads, service classes, resource groups, and classification rules.

service element
One of the discrete hardware and software products that provide a terminal user with processing ability.

service level agreement (SLA)
A contract between a customer and a service provider that specifies the expectations for the level of service with respect to availability, performance, and other measurable objectives.

service policy
A set of performance goals for all z/OS images using z/OS workload management in a sysplex. There can be only one active service policy for a sysplex, and all subsystems in goal mode within that sysplex process towards that policy. However, you can create several service policies, and switch between them to cater for the different needs of different processing periods.

service provider (SP)
Any person, organization, or application that provides a service.

service request block (SRB)
A control block that represents a routine that performs a particular function or service in a specified address space. See also dispatch.

service routine
A user program that accesses data to provide an Atom feed to web clients.

servlet
A Java program that runs on a web server and extends the server functions by generating dynamic content in response to web client requests. Servlets are commonly used to connect databases to the web.

session
  1. A resource that controls local logical units (LUs), remote LUs, modes, and attachments.
  2. In a distributed application, a single conversation between a communicating pair of transactions.
  3. A logical or virtual connection between two stations, software programs, or devices on a network that allows the two elements to communicate and exchange data for the duration of the session.

session bean
An enterprise bean that is created by a client and that typically exists only for the duration of a single client/server session. (Sun) See also entity bean, stateful session bean, stateless session bean.

session key
A key that uniquely identifies each CICS-IMS session. The session key is formed from the CICS name for the session and the IMS subpool name.

session qualifier pair
See session key.

session security
In LU6.2 and MRO, the level of security applied when a request to establish a session is received from, or sent to, a remote system. Used to verify that the remote system is really the system it claims to be. See also link security, user security.

set and test sequence number (STSN)
In SNA, a communication protocol whereby transmissions can be checked.

set buffer address (SBA)
An order used to position data in the buffer of a 3270 terminal, thereby controlling the position of data on the screen. The SBA order is followed by a 2-byte buffer address.

setup program
A user-provided program that defines and inquires about FEPI resources, and performs housekeeping for the sessions.

shared database
A CICS facility that allows a DL/I batch region under a CICS controller to access a database owned by a CICS online system.

shared dynamic storage area (SDSA)
The user-key storage area for any non-reentrant user-key RMODE(24) programs, and also for any storage obtained by programs issuing EXEC CICS GETMAIN commands for storage below 16 MB with the SHARED option.

shift-in character
A control character (X'0F') that is used in EBCDIC systems to denote that the subsequent bytes represent single-byte character set (SBCS) characters. See also shift-out character.

shift-out character (SO)
A control character (X'0E') that is used in EBCDIC systems to denote that the subsequent bytes, up to the next shift-in control character, represent double-byte character set (DBCS) characters. See also shift-in character.

shippable terminal
In transaction routing, a terminal whose definition can be shipped to another CICS system when the other system requires a remote definition of that terminal.

short-on-storage (SOS)
The condition in CICS that occurs when requests for storage from the dynamic storage areas exceed available storage. CICS cannot satisfy these requests, or can satisfy them only by using some of the storage cushion, even when all programs that are eligible for deletion, and are not in use, have been deleted. See also program compression, storage cushion.

short-path transformer
A transformer program for function shipping over MRO links. It is designed to optimize the pathlength involved in the construction of the TIOAs send on an MRO session for function shipping.

shunted
Pertaining to the status of a UOW that has failed at one of the following points: while in-doubt during a two-phase commit process, while attempting to commit changes to resources at the end of the UOW, while attempting to back out the UOW, or if a UOW fails for one of these reasons, it is removed (shunted) from the primary system log (DFHLOG) to the secondary system log (DFHSHUNT) pending recovery from the failure.

shunting
The process of suspending a unit of work in order to allow time to resolve the problem that has caused the suspension. Shunting releases the user's terminal, virtual storage, and CP resources, and allows completion of the unit of work to be deferred for as long as necessary.

side information
System-defined variables that are used for the initial values of the communications element of the SAA Common Programming Interface partner_LU_name, mode_name, and TP_name characteristics.

sign on
To connect to a computer system or network.

sign-on table (SNT)
A table holding terminal operator data, including the operator name, password, and operator priority. Each entry in the table contains data used by CICS to verify an operator name and to establish a priority and operator class for transactions entered by the operator.

sign-on table terminal entry (SNTTE)
An entry created by CICS if a terminal user sign-on is valid.

sign-on transaction program
A user-written transaction program that provides send support required by the CICS PEM server.

single-byte character set (SBCS)
A coded character set in which each character is represented by a 1-byte code. A 1-byte code point allows representation of up to 256 characters. See also double-byte character set.

single-MVS environment
An environment that supports one MVS image. See also MVS image.

single session
A type of APPC connection with limited function. A single-session connection supports only one session and does not have SNA service manager support.

single system image
The collection and presentation of data about multiple CICS systems as though they were a single CICS system. In CICSPlex SM, the single-system image is provided by the CICSPlex SM address space (CMAS).

single threading
The execution of a program to completion. Processing of one transaction is completed before another transaction is started.

SIT
See system initialization table.

SL
See standard label.

SLA
See service level agreement.

SLDS
See system log data set.

SLU
See secondary logical unit.

SLU2
A secondary logical unit that uses LU2 protocols.

SLU P
An LU0 protocol defined by IMS as a protocol to communicate between a programmable workstation, such as a 4700, and IMS. IMS is the Primary Logical Unit (PLU) and the workstation is the Secondary Logical Unit (SLU) in the connection.

SMF
See System Management Facilities.

SMF header
Component of a CICS monitoring or statistics SMF record that describes the system creating the output.

SMF product section
Component of a CICS monitoring or statistics SMF record. The SMF product section describes the CICS data section that follows it in the record and contains operational data pertaining to the processing of the data.

SMP/E
See SMP/E for z/OS.

SMP/E for z/OS (SMP/E)
An IBM licensed program that is used to install software and software changes on z/OS systems.

SMSVSAM
The name of the VSAM server that provides VSAM record-level sharing (RLS). See also VSAM record-level sharing.

SNA
See Systems Network Architecture.

SNA character string (SCS)
In SNA, a string of EBCDIC control characters carried within a request/response unit (RU); the string can also contain user data.

snap dump
A dump that can be requested by a task at any time that the task is being processed.

snapshot dump
See snap dump.

SNT
See sign-on table.

SNTTE
See sign-on table terminal entry.

SO
See shift-out character.

SOAP
A lightweight, XML-based protocol for exchanging information in a decentralized, distributed environment. SOAP can be used to query and return information and invoke services across the Internet. See also web service.

socket
A means for directing data to an application in a TCP/IP network using a unique identifier that is a combination of an IP address and a port number.

software (SW)
The programs, procedures, rules, and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a system. See also hardware.

SOS
See short-on-storage.

source program
A set of instructions that are written in a programming language and must be translated into machine language before the program can be run.

source temporary store (STS)
The SMP/E primary data set, used to hold updated versions of source elements.

SP
  1. See system performance.
  2. See service provider.

spanned record
In the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), a logical record whose length exceeds control interval length and, as a result, crosses, or spans, one or more control interval boundaries within a single control area.

specific gate
Entry point or interface to a CICS domain. A specific gate gives access to a set of functions that are provided by that domain only. The functions are likely to be requested by many different callers.

SPI
See system programming interface.

spooling
The sending of data to auxiliary storage for later processing. The most common spooling application is print spooling.

SQA
See system queue area.

SRB
See service request block.

SRM
See system resources manager.

SRT
See system recovery table.

SSA
See segment search argument.

stand-alone CICS bundle
A CICS bundle that is deployed as its own entity, rather than as part of a management bundle. See also CICS bundle, management bundle.

standard label (SL)
An IBM, ANSI, or ISO standard tape label.

started transaction
A CICS transaction initiated by a terminal user can start other transactions by means of a CICS START command. A transaction started in this way is known as a started transaction.

startup job stream
A set of job control statements used to initialize CICS.

state
The situation of a conversation from the point of view of one of the participating transactions. The conversation state determines the commands (if any) that a transaction can validly issue. The state of each transaction changes dynamically in the course of a conversation. See also state variable.

stateful session bean
A session bean that acts on behalf of a single client and maintains client-specific session information (called conversational state) across multiple method calls and transactions. See also session bean, stateless session bean.

stateless session bean
A session bean with no conversational state. All instances of a stateless bean are identical. (Sun) See also session bean, stateful session bean.

state transition
The change from one state to another.

state variable
A program can obtain values that indicate the conversation state. CICS places such values in a variable named by the program, known as the state variable. See also state.

static storage
An area that is allocated by the system when a program is activated. Static storage exists as long as the program activation exists. If the program has not been deactivated, the values in the storage persist from one call to another. See also dynamic storage.

static transaction routing
Non-dynamic terminal-initiated transaction routing. The transaction routing request is routed to a predetermined system. Static transaction routing occurs when DYNAMIC(NO) is specified in the transaction definition and the request is routed to the system named in the REMOTESYSTEM attribute.

statistics domain
Major component of CICS that controls the collection of resource statistics for a CICS system. It collects data at user-specified intervals, at shutdown and logical end-of-day, and when requested by the user.

statistics utility program (DFHSTUP STUP)
CICS program that provides offline formatting of CICS statistics. DFHSTUP can format all types of statistics generated by CICS and provides a summary function to collect all statistics produced in a given period. See also summary report.

STOKEN
See security token.

storage
A functional unit into which data can be placed, in which it can be retained, and from which it can be retrieved.

storage accounting area (SAA)
A field at the start of a CICS storage area that describes the area and enables CICS to detect some storage violations. Each CICS storage area has either an SAA or a storage check zone.

storage check zone
A pair of fields at the beginning and end of a CICS storage area that enable CICS to detect some storage violations. Each CICS storage area has either a storage check zone or a storage accounting area (SSA).

storage cushion
A noncontiguous area of storage in the dynamic storage areas reserved for use by CICS when processing a short-on-storage condition. See also short-on-storage.

storage key
A key associated with each 4 KB block of storage that is available in the CICS region. Access to CICS storage is controlled by key-controlled storage protection. When key-controlled protection applies to a storage access, a store operation (write) is permitted only when the storage key matches the access key associated with the request; a fetch (read) is permitted when the keys match or when the fetch-protection bit of the storage key is zero. In most cases, the access key for a storage operation is the PSW key in the current PSW.

storage manager domain
Major component of CICS which manages virtual storage requests.

storage protection
An optional facility in CICS Transaction Server that enables users to protect CICS code and control blocks from being overwritten inadvertently by application programs. See also transaction isolation.

storage protection key
An indicator that appears in the current program status word whenever an associated task has control of the system. This indicator must match the storage keys of all main storage blocks that the task is to use.

storage violation
An error in a storage accounting chain in the dynamic storage area. A storage violation can be detected by the storage manager domain in CICS.

stress
A shortage of free space in a CICS dynamic storage area, such that CICS cannot recover from virtual storage depletion.

string
A sequence of elements of the same nature, such as characters considered as a whole. For example, character string, binary string, and hexadecimal string.

STS
  1. See source temporary store.
  2. See Security Token Service.

STSN
See set and test sequence number.

STSN Handler
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles STSN requests.

stub
A small module, link-edited into application code, that locates and transfers control to a larger body of related code.

stuck process
A process that cannot proceed because it is waiting for an event that cannot, or does not, occur.

sub-event
An atomic event that has been added to a composite event.

sub-event queue
A list of the sub-events of a particular composite event that have fired. Each composite event has a sub-event queue associated with it. The queue may be empty. Sub-events remain on the sub-event queue until they are retrieved, or until a syncpoint occurs.

subordinate
In two-phase commit processing, a recovery manager that must wait for confirmation from its coordinator before committing or backing out changes made to recoverable resources by its part of a distributed unit of work. The subordinate can be in doubt in respect to its coordinator. See also coordinator.

subroutine
A sequence of instructions within a larger program that performs a particular task. A subroutine can be accessed repeatedly, can be used in more than one program, and can be called at more than one point in a program.

subset pointer
In IMS, a pointer used to give direct access to subsets of long twin chains of segments; this can speed up processing of DEDBs.

subspace group
A group of subspaces and a single base space, where the base space is the normal MVS address space. See also subspace group facility.

subspace group facility
A facility in MVS that can be used for storage isolation to preserve data integrity within an address space. See also subspace group.

substring
A part of a character string.

subsystem
A secondary or subordinate system, usually capable of operating independently of, or asynchronously with, a controlling system.

summary report
A statistics report produced by the CICS statistics utility program (STUP). It summarizes the interval, unsolicited, requested reset, and end-of-day statistics on an applid by applid basis. See also statistics utility program.

supervisor
The part of a control program that coordinates the use of resources and maintains the flow of processor operations.

supervisor call (SVC)
An instruction that interrupts the program being run and passes control to the supervisor so that it can perform the specific service indicated by the instruction.

supervisory terminal operator
Any CICS operator whose security key(s) allow use of the supervisory terminal functions.

surrogate TCTTE
In CICS transaction routing, a TCTTE in the transaction-owning region that is used to represent the terminal that invoked, or was acquired by, the transaction. See also surrogate terminal.

surrogate terminal
A terminal whose terminal definition is shipped from a terminal owning region (TOR). See also surrogate TCTTE.

surrogate user
A user who has the authority to start work on behalf of another user, without knowing the password of the other user.

SVC
See supervisor call.

SW
See software.

SWA
See scheduler work area.

switched connection
A connection that is established by dialing. See also nonswitched connection.

switched line
In data communications, a connection between computers or devices that is established by dialing. See also nonswitched line.

symbolic description map
A symbolic description map is a source language data structure that the assembler or compiler uses to resolve source program references to fields in the map.

symptom string
Diagnostic information displayed in a structured format designed for searching the IBM software support database.

sync
See synchronization.

synchronization (sync)
A coordinated commitment control process between communicating transactions that ensures that all logically-related updates to recoverable resources are completed or that all are backed out.

synchronization level (sync level)
The level of synchronization (0, 1, or 2) established for an APPC session between intercommunicating CICS transactions. Level 0 gives no synchronization support, level 1 allows the exchange of private synchronization requests, and level 2 gives full CICS synchronization support with backout of all updates to recoverable resources if failure occurs.

synchronous
  1. Pertaining to two or more processes that depend upon the occurrences of specific events, such as a common timing signal. See also asynchronous.
  2. Occurring with a regular or predictable time relationship.

Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC)
A protocol for managing synchronous information transfer over a data link connection.

synchronous processing
A series of operations that are done as part of the job in which they were requested; for example, calling a program in an interactive job at a work station. See also asynchronous processing.

sync level
See synchronization level.

sync point
A point during the processing of a transaction at which protected resources are consistent.

sync point agent
Any transaction that receives a sync point request issued by the sync point initiator during a conversation in a dynamic transaction processing environment.

sync point initiator
The transaction that initiates sync point activity for a distributed unit of work.

SYSMOD
See system modification.

sysplex
A set of z/OS systems that communicate with each other through certain multisystem hardware components and software services.

system
  1. A single node or a cluster of nodes acting as a single computing entity. A system in this sense may run multiple instances of the operating system.
  2. A computer and its associated devices and programs.

System Authorization Facility (SAF)
A z/OS interface with which programs can communicate with an external security manager, such as RACF.

system context
The filtering options defined in the capture specification for system events. These options define the environment for the event capture.

system data set
Data set used to store system information that is only accessible to the system.

system diagnostic work area (SDWA)
In a z/OS environment, the data that is recorded in a SYS1.LOGREC entry that describes a program or hardware error.

system dump (SDUMP)
A dump of all the storage in the system that can be used for problem determination.

system dump code
A name of up to eight characters by which a system dump will be known. A system dump code can be defined by CICS or by the user and identifies a set of system actions held in the form of an entry in the system dump table. See also dump code.

system dump table (SDT)
A CICS table which may contain an entry for each system dump code. See also dump code.

system event
A business event that is emitted by the system. System events can include resource state changes, thresholds being crossed, unusual system states or actions, or an input event. See also input event, user-defined event.

system generation
The process of creating a particular system tailored to the requirements of a data processing installation.

system initialization
A CICS facility (part of the system support component) that is used to start the CICS job. The facility is resident only long enough to bring CICS into storage and start up CICS.

system initialization parameter
Parameter used to define capabilities of a CICS system at the time of system initialization. A system initialization parameter can be predefined in the system initialization table (SIT), or specified dynamically from the console, in the SYSIN data set, or as a parameter in the startup JCL.

system initialization program (DFHSIP SIP)
CICS program that builds a CICS system using the resources you have defined and any user-designed or purchased applications. DFHSIP receives instructions from system initialization parameters.

system initialization table (SIT)
A table containing parameters used by CICS on start up.

system log
The journal (identification='01') that is used by CICS to log changes made to resources for the purpose of backout on emergency restart. See also general log.

system log data set (SLDS)
A data set on which IMS archives a full online log data set (OLDS). An SLDS can be on DASD or tape. The contents are used as input to the database recovery process. See also online log data set, write-ahead data set.

system logger
An integrated logging facility that is provided by MVS and can be used by system and subsystem components. For example, it is used by the CICS log manager.

System Management Facilities (SMF)
A component of z/OS that collects and records a variety of system and job-related information.

system modification (SYSMOD)
Input to SMP/E that specifies the introduction, replacement, or update of elements in the operating system and associated distribution libraries.

system performance (SP)
A major factor in measuring system productivity. Performance is determined by a combination of throughput, response time, and availability.

system program
A program providing services in general support of the running of a system.

system programming interface (SPI)
A CICS application programming interface that accesses system-orientated CICS services.

system queue area (SQA)
An area of virtual storage below the 16 MB line reserved for system-related control blocks.

system recovery table (SRT)
A table listing the ABEND or abnormal condition codes that CICS will intercept.

system resources manager (SRM)
A component of the MVS control program.

Systems Network Architecture (SNA)
The description of the logical structure, formats, protocols, and operational sequences for transmitting information through and controlling the configuration and operation of networks.

system statistics
Statistics that are accumulated continually by CICS management programs in CICS system tables during the execution of CICS. System statistics can be captured and recorded, either on request or automatically at intervals, by any operator whose security code allows access to such information. In addition, system statistics are recorded on shutdown of the system.



TACLE
See terminal abnormal condition line entry.

tape volume table of contents (TVTOC)
Information about a tape data set that RACF stores in the TAPEVOL profile for the volume on which the data set resides. The TVTOC includes the data set name, data set sequence number, creation date, and an indicator as to whether a discrete tape data set profile exists.

target region
In BTS, the CICS region on which a routed process or activity executes. See also requesting region, routing region.

target zone
In the System Modification Program/Extended (SMP/E), a collection of VSAM records describing the target system macros, modules, assemblies, load modules, source modules, and libraries copied from distribution libraries (DLIBs) during system generation, and the system modifications (SYSMODs) applied to the target system.

task
  1. A unit of work to be accomplished by a device or process.
  2. In CICS, a single instance of the execution of a transaction.

task control area (TCA)
An area of main storage acquired by CICS when a task is first dispatched. It is used to control the processing of the task. Once acquired, the TCA exists until the task is terminated. It contains the current status of the task, its relative dispatching priority, and parameters and information being passed between CICS and the application program.

task control block (TCB)
A z/OS control block that is used to communicate information about tasks within an address space that is connected to a subsystem.

task initiator
See trigger monitor.

task-related user exit (TRUE)
A user exit program that is associated with specified events in a particular task, rather than with every occurrence of a particular event in CICS processing (as is the case with global user exits). See also global user exit, resource manager interface.

task switching
The overlapping of I/O operations and processing between several tasks.

TCA
See task control area.

TCB
See task control block.

TCP
See Transmission Control Protocol.

TCP/IP
See Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.

TCT
See terminal control table.

TCTE
See terminal control table terminal entry.

TCTLE
See terminal control table line entry.

TCTSE
See terminal control table system entry.

TCTTE
See terminal control table terminal entry.

TCTUA
See terminal control table user area.

TCU
See transmission control unit.

TD
  1. See intrapartition transient data.
  2. See transient data.

TDT
See transaction dump table.

TEB
See terminal error block.

Telecommunication Standardization Sector
See International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector.

Teleprocessing Network Simulator (TPNS)
A program used to test new functions before they encounter production volumes.

teletypewriter exchange service (TWX)
Teletypewriter service in which suitably arranged teletypewriter stations are provided with lines to a central office for access to other such stations throughout the U.S. and Canada. Both baudot- and ASCII-coded machines are used. Business machines may also be used, with certain restrictions.

temporary storage (TS)
The CICS facility that allows application programs to store data in a temporary storage queue for later retrieval.

temporary storage queue
A queue of data items which can be read and reread, in any sequence. The queue is created by a task, and persists until the same task, or a another task deletes it.

temporary storage table (TST)
A table describing temporary storage queues and queue prefixes for which CICS is to provide recovery or security or that are located on a remote CICS system.

TEP
See terminal error program.

terminal
  1. In data communication, a device, usually equipped with a keyboard and display device, capable of sending and receiving information.
  2. In a system or communications network, a point at which data can either enter or leave.

terminal abnormal condition line entry (TACLE)
An area containing CICS error information and a copy of the data event control block (DECB) at the time an error occurred on a non-SNA LU or line. When an abnormal condition occurs on a non-SNA LU or line, terminal control places the terminal out of service and dynamically creates a TACLE, which is chained off the terminal control table line entry (TCTLE) for the terminal or line on which the error occurred.

terminal control interface
An interface that allows an application program to send or receive a device-dependent terminal data stream.

terminal control table (TCT)
CICS control table retained to define non-SNA LU networks.

terminal control table line entry (TCTLE)
A control block in the TCT for all non-SNA LUs on the same line. The TCTLE contains all parameters necessary for processing requests for terminals on the line.

terminal control table system entry (TCTSE)
In the TCT, an entry that is generated for each system known to the local CICS system.

terminal control table terminal entry (TCTE, TCTTE)
In the TCT, an entry for each terminal known to CICS. TCTTEs are generated either during system initialization (for terminals predefined by resource definition) or when a terminal is autoinstalled. The TCTTE describes the terminal and addresses the corresponding TCTLE, the active TCA, and TIOAs; it also contains control information relating to terminal control requests issued by the CICS application program.

terminal control table user area (TCTUA)
An area used to pass information between application programs, but only if the same terminal is associated with the application programs involved.

terminal emulation
The capability of a microcomputer or personal computer to operate as if it were a particular type of terminal linked to a processing unit and to access data.

terminal error block (TEB)
Control block that maintains error information associated with terminals, for use by the CICS terminal error program.

terminal error program (TEP)
A user-replaceable CICS program used to handle error conditions that can occur when sequential devices are used. Node error programs must be used for z/OS Communications Server-supported devices. The terminal error program analyzes the cause of the terminal or line error that has been detected by the terminal control program.

terminal-initiated transaction routing
Transaction routing that is initiated by a request to start a remote transaction arriving from a terminal. On the basis of an installed resource definition for the transaction and possibly on decisions made in a user-written dynamic transaction routing program, the request is routed to the appropriate remote system. The transaction runs as if the terminal were attached to the transaction-owning system.

terminal input/output area (TIOA)
Area that is set up by storage control and chained to the terminal control table terminal entry (TCTTE) as needed for terminal input/output operations.

terminal list table (TLT)
CICS control table that allows terminal, or operator identifications, or both, to be grouped logically.

terminal-owning region (TOR)
A CICS region which owns most or all of the terminals defined locally. See also application-owning region, data-owning region.

terminal paging
A set of commands for retrieving pages of an oversize output message in any order.

TGS
See ticket-granting service.

TGT
See ticket-granting ticket.

thread
A stream of computer instructions that is in control of a process. In some operating systems, a thread is the smallest unit of operation in a process. Several threads can run concurrently, performing different jobs.

threading
The process whereby various transactions undergo concurrent execution.

threadsafe
Pertaining to user-written code or CICS functions that use appropriate serialization techniques to maintain the integrity of resources that are being used by other tasks at the same time.

throughput rate
The data processing work successfully completed per unit of time.

ticket
A mechanism for securely transmitting the identity of a client to a server.

ticket-granting service (TGS)
A service provided by the key distribution center (KDC) that issues service tickets.

ticket-granting ticket (TGT)
A ticket that a principal passes to the ticket-granting server when a service ticket is requested. The ticket-granting service uses the ticket-granting ticket to verify that the principal has authenticated to the authentication server before it grants the request for the service ticket.

TID
See transaction identifier.

tie-up record (TUR)
In the CICS backup while open (BWO) facility, a record in the forward recovery journal that associates a file name with a data set name.

tight loop
A loop in a single program that never returns control to the program or operating system.

time-of-day clock (TOD clock)
A timing device that counts units of time based on the starting point of 00 hours, 00 minutes, and 00 seconds on January 1, 1900. Time-of-day (TOD) information is used to monitor computer operations and events.

timer
A BTS object that expires when the system time becomes greater than a specified time, or after a specified period has elapsed. When a timer is defined, a timer event is automatically associated with it. When the timer expires, its associated event fires.

timer domain
Major component of CICS that provides interval timing and alarm clock services for CICS domains. These are processes that cause an action to occur at some predetermined future time. This service can be performed after a specific interval, at periodic intervals, at a specified time of day, or at a specific time of day every day. It also provides date and time provision and conversion facilities.

timer event
An atomic event that fires when its associated timer expires. See also user-defined event.

Time Sharing Option (TSO)
A base element of the z/OS operating system with which users can interactively work with the system. See also Interactive System Productivity Facility.

TIOA
See terminal input/output area.

TLT
See terminal list table.

TOD clock
See time-of-day clock.

token
A value passed as a parameter for the purpose of uniquely identifying objects.

topology
An inventory of CICS and CICSPlex SM resources, and a map of their relationships. CICSPlex SM supports the definition of resource and system topology.

topology definition
A named subset of CICS and CICSPlex SM resources. Topology definitions are user-created and can include CICSplexes, CICS systems, and CICS system groups.

Topology Services
A component of CICSPlex SM that is responsible for maintaining topology information about CICSplexes and resources, and making it available to other CICSPlex SM components.

TOR
See terminal-owning region.

TPNS
See Teleprocessing Network Simulator.

trace
A record of the processing of a computer program or transaction. The information collected from a trace can be used to assess problems and performance.

trace domain
Major component of CICS used by CICS system code and user applications to record and manage trace information on CICS internal, auxiliary, and GTF trace services.

trace level
A level associated with each trace point. The level of a trace point depends on where the trace point is and on what sort of detail it can provide on a trace call. Most trace points are trace level 1 or 2.

trace point
A defined place in the CICS code from which trace entries can be written to any currently selected trace destination.

trace utility program (TUP)
An offline utility program that formats and prints trace entries from the CICS auxiliary trace data set.

transaction
A unit of processing consisting of one or more application programs, affecting one or more objects, that is initiated by a single request.

transaction abend code
A four-character code, defined by CICS or the user, that is used when abnormally terminating a transaction. CICS-defined transaction abend codes begin with the letter 'A'. A transaction abend code is used to indicate the cause of an error that may have occurred in CICS code or in a user program. See also transaction dump code.

transaction backout
The cancellation, as a result of a transaction failure, of all updates performed by a task.

transaction backout program
A program (part of the emergency restart function) that is invoked during emergency restart, and that reads backout information (written to the restart data set by the recovery utility program) for task, message, DL/I, and file tables.

transaction channel
A channel that is available for the lifetime of a transaction. Containers in this channel are available to any program throughout the transaction, including any exit points that are API-enabled.

transaction deadlock
A condition in which two or more transactions cannot continue processing because each is waiting on a resource held by the other.

transaction dump
In CICS, a formatted dump for the program active at the time the dump was requested. A transaction dump indicates where the error occurred within the program.

transaction dump code
A name of up to four characters by which a transaction dump will be known. When a transaction abend causes CICS to create a transaction dump, the associated transaction abend code is used as the transaction dump code. See also dump code, transaction abend code.

transaction dump table (TDT)
A CICS table which may contain an entry for each transaction dump code. See also dump code.

transaction ID
See transaction identifier.

transaction identifier (TID, transaction ID, XID)
A unique name that is assigned to a transaction and is used to identify the actions associated with that transaction.

transaction isolation
A CICS facility that offers storage protection between transactions, ensuring that a program of one transaction does not accidentally overwrite the storage of another transaction. See also storage protection.

transaction list table (XLT)
CICS control table containing a list of transaction identifications. Depending on a system initialization specification that can be changed during system termination, the transactions in a particular XLT can be initiated from terminals during the first quiesce stage of system termination. During CICS execution the suffix of an XLT can be entered at the master terminal - the transactions in that XLT can then be enabled or disabled as a group.

transaction manager
A software unit that coordinates the activities of resource managers by managing global transactions and coordinating the decision to commit them or roll them back.

transaction manager domain
A CICS domain that provides transaction-related services to create, terminate, purge, and inquire on tasks; and manage transaction definitions and transaction classes. The transaction manager domain is designed to provide greater reliability and improved function; it has minimal impact on end users.

transaction rate
The number of units of processing successfully completed per unit of time.

transaction restart program
A user-replaceable program (DFHREST) that enables you to participate in the decision as to whether a transaction should be restarted or not.

transaction routing
An intercommunication facility that allows terminals or logical units connected to one CICS region to initiate and to communicate with transactions in another CICS region within the same processor system or in another CICS system connected by an APPC link.

transaction security
A call to RACF each time a transaction identifier is entered at a terminal to verify that the terminal user or user ID associated with that terminal is permitted to run the transaction.

transaction-system affinity
An affinity between a transaction and a particular CICS region, where the transaction interrogates or changes the properties of that CICS region. Transactions with affinity to a particular system, rather than another transaction, are not eligible for dynamic transaction routing. In general, they are transactions that use INQUIRE and SET commands, or have some dependency on global user exit programs, which also have an affinity with a particular CICS region.

transaction work area (TWA)
An optional extension of the TCA, used as a work area for a given task. The TWA can be used for the accumulation of data and intermediate results during the execution of the task. When the amount of working storage for a task is relatively static, the TWA may be used if data is accessed by different programs during task processing. This approach cannot be used for multiple transactions; the TWA is released automatically at task termination. See also common work area.

transient data (TD)
A CICS facility that provides the ability to read and write data in sequential queues.

transient data control program
The CICS program that controls sequential data files and intrapartition transient data.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
A communication protocol used in the Internet and in any network that follows the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards for internetwork protocol. TCP provides a reliable host-to-host protocol in packet-switched communication networks and in interconnected systems of such networks. See also Internet Protocol.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
An industry-standard, nonproprietary set of communication protocols that provides reliable end-to-end connections between applications over interconnected networks of different types.

transmission control unit (TCU)
A communication control unit whose operations are controlled solely by programmed instructions from the computing system to which the unit is attached. No program is stored or executed in the unit. Examples are the IBM 2702 and 2703 Transmission Controls. See also communication controller.

transparency
Terminal attribute whereby data is not translated between terminal and main storage representation on read or write requests. This allows the transmission of all 256 possible byte values.

trigger field
In BMS, a field that is transmitted to the host processor as soon as the terminal operator has modified the field and then tries to move the cursor out of it. You can use display trigger fields to initiate input to an application program. The trigger attribute is ignored if the operator has not modified the trigger field.

trigger level
The number of records written to an intrapartition transient data destination or queue that will cause CICS to automatically initiate a task to process that queue. See also automatic transaction initiation.

trigger monitor
A program that responds to trigger conditions on a message queue by starting a transaction. A trigger monitor is usually a continuously-running program.

TRUE
See task-related user exit.

trunking
A function of the z/OS Communications Server class of service facility. Trunking enables explicit routes to use parallel links between specific nodes.

TS
See temporary storage.

TSO
See Time Sharing Option.

TST
See temporary storage table.

tuning
The process of adjusting an application, a system, or system control variables to operate in a more efficient manner.

TUP
See trace utility program.

TUR
See tie-up record.

turnaround time
  1. The total time consumed from the start to the completion of a specific unit of work measured at specific interfaces. When multiple inputs and/or multiple outputs are parts of one unit of work, intermediate turnaround time specifications may be needed.
  2. The elapsed time between entry of the first character of the first input into the input interface and the passage of the last character of the last output through the output interface.

TVTOC
See tape volume table of contents.

TWA
See transaction work area.

two-phase commit
A two-step process by which recoverable resources and an external subsystem are committed. During the first step, the database manager subsystems are polled to ensure that they are ready to commit. If all subsystems respond positively, the database manager instructs them to commit.

TWX
See teletypewriter exchange service.



UACC
See universal access authority.

UDSA
See user dynamic storage area.

UIB
See user interface block.

UMT
See user-maintained data table.

unbind
In SNA, to deactivate a session between logical units.

UNBIND
See unbind session.

unbind session (UNBIND)
A request to deactivate a session between two logical units (LUs).

undo
In a data entry database, a state that occurs when no changes have been committed in the database. The changes are still in main storage and are backed out from there.

unit of compilation
In VS COBOL II, a section of source input from which the compiler produces a single object program. A unit of compilation can consist of a containing program and other programs nested within it.

unit of recovery
A sequence of operations within a unit of work between sync points.

unit of work (UOW)
A recoverable sequence of operations performed by an application between two points of consistency. A unit of work begins when a transaction starts or at a user-requested sync point. It ends either at a user-requested sync point or at the end of a transaction.

unit-of-work identifier
In advanced program-to-program communications, a unique label assigned to the unit of work. The ID is established when the program on the source system is started and is associated with each job started by that source system on the target system. The unit-of-work identifier provides a beginning-to-end audit trail within an APPC network.

universal access authority (UACC)
In RACF, the default access authority that applies to a resource if the user or group is not specifically permitted access to the resource.

unmapped conversation
See basic conversation.

unserviceable request
A request to run an activation of an activity which currently cannot be satisfied, either because the activity is not available or because the region on which the request must run is inaccessible.

unshunting
The process of attaching a transaction to provide an environment under which to resume the processing of a shunted unit of work.

unsolicited data
A type of inbound data that arrives on a connection where no FEPI conversation is active.

unsolicited-data handler
A user-provided part of a FEPI application that handles unsolicited inbound data.

unsolicited statistics
CICS statistics automatically gathered by CICS for a dynamically allocated and deallocated resource (for example, an autoinstalled terminal) when the resource is about to be deleted. See also end-of-day statistics, interval statistics, requested reset statistics, requested statistics.

UOW
See unit of work.

update
To modify a file or data set with current information.

update intent
In IMS, DL/I, or SQL/DS, the type of access intent that allows a subsystem to insert, delete, or replace records on a database.

URM
See user-replaceable module.

use count
Number of tasks using a program concurrently. This is maintained by CICS in the program processing table.

user
Any individual, organization, process, device, program, protocol, or system that uses the services of a computing system.

user authentication
In RACF, part of security checking at sign-on. It consists of identification of the user ID and verification of the password or of the user identification card.

user data set
In z/OS, a data set defined to RACF in which either the high-level qualifier of the data set name or the qualifier supplied by an installation exit routine is a RACF user ID. See also group data set.

user-defined event
An event defined by the BTS application programmer. The BTS user-defined events are activity completion events, input events, and timer events. See also composite event, system event, timer event.

user domain
A CICS domain responsible for identifying users and recording their non-security attributes.

user dynamic storage area (UDSA)
A storage area in CICS that is allocated below the 16 MB line and reserved exclusively for those user application programs that execute in user-key and that reside below the 16 MB line.

user exit
A point in a program at which a user exit routine may be given control.

user exit handler
A CICS program that is invoked at an exit point (other than an exit point in a domain) to handle the user exit program associated with that exit point.

user exit programming interface (XPI)
A CICS interface that provides global user exit programs with access to some CICS services. XPI consists of a set of function calls that you can use in your user exit programs to extend or modify CICS system functions.

user identification and verification
The acts of identifying and verifying a RACF-defined user to the system during logon or batch job processing. RACF identifies the user by the user ID and verifies the user by the password or operator identification card supplied during logon processing or the password supplied on a batch JOB statement.

user interface block (UIB)
A control block used in the CALL DLI interface to pass information to the user program. It contains the address of the PCB address list (UIBPCBAL) from the schedule request, and the response code to each DL/I request. A definition of the UIB should only be included in the application program if the UIB is to be referenced. The UIB is acquired by the interface routine when an application program issues a schedule request specifying a pointer reference to be set with the address of the UIB.

user-key storage
Storage obtained by CICS in MVS open-key storage. It is for user application programs and their associated data areas. It can be accessed and modified by user applications and by CICS. See also CICS-key.

user-maintained data table (UMT)
A type of CICS data table that has no CICS-supported association with its source data set after it has been loaded. Changes to the table are not automatically reflected in the source data set.

user name
A string of characters that uniquely identifies a user to a system.

user profile
A description of a user that includes such information as user ID, user name, password, access authority, and other attributes that are obtained when the user logs on. See also profile.

user-related activity
An activity that requires human involvement. Such an activity cannot be started automatically by BTS, because it is dependent on a user being ready to process the work.

user-replaceable module (URM)
See user-replaceable program.

user-replaceable program
A CICS program that is invoked at a particular point in CICS processing as if it were part of CICS code. You can modify the supplied program by including your own logic, or replace it with a version that you write yourself. Examples include the dynamic routing program, and the transaction restart program.

user security
That part of a security facility that verifies that a user is authorized to (a) sign on to a local or remote system (b) run a transaction and (c) to access the resources and use the commands that a transaction invokes. See also session security.

user transaction
A user-written transaction.



variable-length variable blocked (VLVB)
Data format of messages transmitted between CICS and IMS.

verification
The act of confirming that a user is eligible to use a RACF-defined user ID.

view
  1. In the CICSPlex SM API, a temporary, customized form of a resource table. A view can consist of some or all of the resource table attributes in any order.
  2. In the CICSPlex SM web user interface, a formatted display of selected data about CICS resources or CICSPlex SM definitions. The data in a view is obtained from a query and can be presented in one or more forms. The data can be limited to a subset of CICSplex resources or definitions by establishing a context and scope.

viewport
In BMS, that part of a screen that is allocated to a partition. See also partition.

virtual address
The address of a location in virtual storage.

virtual lookaside facility (VLF)
A z/OS facility that enables named data to be kept in virtual storage instead of DASD.

virtual machine (VM)
An instance of a data-processing system that appears to be at the exclusive disposal of a single user, but whose functions are accomplished by sharing the resources of a physical data-processing system.

virtual storage (VS)
The storage space that can be regarded as addressable main storage by the user of a computer system in which virtual addresses are mapped to real addresses. The size of virtual storage is limited by the addressing scheme of the computer system and by the amount of available auxiliary storage, not by the actual number of main storage locations.

Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM)
An access method for direct or sequential processing of fixed-length and variable-length records on disk devices. The records in a VSAM data set or file can be organized in logical sequence by a key field (key sequence), in the physical sequence in which they are written on the data set or file (entry sequence), or by relative-record number.

Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM)
An IBM licensed program that controls communication and the flow of data in an SNA network.

VLF
See virtual lookaside facility.

VLVB
See variable-length variable blocked.

VM
See virtual machine.

VS
See virtual storage.

VSAM
See Virtual Storage Access Method.

VSAM record-level sharing (VSAM RLS)
An extension to the Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) that provides direct record-level sharing of VSAM data sets from multiple address spaces across multiple systems. Record-level sharing uses the z/OS Coupling Facility (CF) to provide cross-system locking, local buffer invalidation, and cross-system data caching. Contrast with global shared resources and local shared resources. See also SMSVSAM.

VSAM RLS
See VSAM record-level sharing.

VSAM sphere
The base cluster of a Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM) data set and its associated alternate indexes.

VSAM work area (VSWA)
An area that is acquired dynamically by the file control program when accessing a VSAM data set.

VSWA
See VSAM work area.

VTAM
See Virtual Telecommunications Access Method.



WAB
See web application bundle.

WADS
See write-ahead data set.

WAN
See wide area network.

WAR
See web archive.

warm keypoint
A keypoint written to the restart data set during controlled shutdown (after all system activity has ceased). During a subsequent warm restart, information in the warm keypoint is used to reestablish system tables to the status they had at controlled shutdown.

warm start
Initialization of a CICS system using selected system status information obtained during the previous termination.

WCC
See write control character.

Web 2.0
A second generation of services and applications available on the World Wide Web that enable collaboration, information sharing, dynamic service delivery, and interaction. The concept of Web 2.0 typically includes later-generation web-based applications such as wikis and weblogs. Web 2.0 applications look more like desktop applications and are often dynamically data driven rather than comprising static HTML content.

web application bundle (WAB)
A bundle that contains a web application, and that can be deployed in an OSGi container. A WAB is an OSGi bundle version of a web archive (WAR) file.

web archive (WAR)
A compressed file format, defined by the Java EE standard, for storing all the resources required to install and run a web application in a single file. See also Java archive.

web service
A self-contained, self-describing modular application that can be published, discovered, and invoked over a network using standard network protocols. Typically, XML is used to tag the data, SOAP is used to transfer the data, WSDL is used for describing the services available, and UDDI is used for listing what services are available. See also SOAP, Web Services Description Language.

web service binding file
A file that contains information that CICS uses to transform data formats between XML or JSON and structured application data.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
An XML-based specification for describing networked services as a set of endpoints operating on messages containing either document-oriented or procedure-oriented information. See also web service.

Web User Interface server (WUI server)
For CICSPlex SM, a dedicated CICS region that interacts with a CMAS to enable users to view and manage objects in the data repository of the CMAS through a web browser.

wide area network (WAN)
A network that provides communication services among devices in a geographic area larger than that served by a local area network (LAN) or a metropolitan area network (MAN). See also local area network.

word
A fundamental unit of storage that refers to the amount of data that can be processed at a time. Word size is a characteristic of the computer architecture. See also doubleword.

working set
  1. The amount of real storage required in order to avoid excessive paging.
  2. The parts of a program's executable code, data areas, or both that are being used intensively and are therefore important to keep in the fastest possible type of storage. Thus a program's instruction cache working set is the set of program cache lines that need to be kept in the instruction cache if the program is to run at maximum speed.

workload
  1. A group of service classes.
  2. A sequence of requests, such as commands, I/O operations, and subroutine-library calls, that constitutes a unit of work being performed by a system. Workload frequently refers to work that is repeatable so that it can be used to measure performance.

workload management
In CICS, a method of optimizing the use of system resources by spreading workload as evenly as possible between different regions.

workload management mode
A mode in which resources are managed according to the goals specified in the active workload-management policy.

workstation
A terminal or personal computer at which a user can run applications and that is usually connected to a mainframe or a network.

write-ahead data set (WADS)
A data set containing log records that reflect completed operations and are not yet written to an online log data set. See also system log data set.

write control character (WCC)
  1. A control character that follows a write command in the 3270 data stream and provides control information for executing display and printer functions.
  2. A character used with a write-type command to specify that a particular operation, or combination of operations, is to be performed at a display station or printer.

WSDL
See Web Services Description Language.

WSDL document
A file that provides a set of definitions that describe a web service in Web Services Description Language (WSDL) format.

WSDL file
See WSDL document.

WUI server
See Web User Interface server.



XCF
See cross-system coupling facility.

X extent
A separate extent, part of the system log. During backout in emergency restart, system log records are written to the X extent. The presence of an X extent is mandatory if CICS Transaction Server is using a local DL/I system; otherwise, it is optional. The X extent can be used for audit purposes.

XID
See transaction identifier.

xJCL
An XML-based job control language that is used to define a batch job. See also job control language, results algorithm.

XLT
See transaction list table.

XMI
See XML Metadata Interchange.

XML
See Extensible Markup Language.

XML Metadata Interchange (XMI)
A model-driven XML integration framework for defining, interchanging, manipulating, and integrating XML data and objects. XMI-based standards are in use for integrating tools, repositories, applications, and data warehouses.

XPI
  1. See user exit programming interface.
  2. See exit programming interface.

XPLINK
See Extra Performance Linkage.

XRST
See extended restart.



yielding loop
A loop characterized by returning control at some point to a CICS routine that can suspend the looping task. However, the looping task will eventually be resumed and so the loop will continue.


© Copyright IBM Corp. - Last updated: Friday, 17 July 2020 00:04